Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions The Early History of ChemistryBefore 16th CenturyGreeks were the first to attempt to explain why chemical changes occur.Alchemy: Attempts to change cheap metals into gold. They invented the idea of atoms, that matter is not continuous. They discovered several elements and learned to prepare mineral acids.
2 The Early History of Chemistry 16th CenturyGerman develop the systematic metallurgy (extraction of metal from ores)Swiss develop the medicinal application of minerals17th CenturyRobert Boyle: First chemist to perform quantitative experiments
3 Fundamental Chemical Laws Law of Conservation of Mass (Antoine Lavoisier, 18th Century) – Mass is neither created nor destroyedLaw of Definite Proportion (Joseph Proust, 19th Century) – A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. This principle of constant composition of compounds is a law of definite proportion. Carbon tetra chloride is always 1 atom carbon per 4 atoms chlorine
4 Fundamental Chemical Laws Law of Multiple Proportions (John Dalton, 19th Century) – When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratio of the masses of the second element that combine with 1g of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers. The ratio of the masses of oxygen in H2O and H2O2 will be a small whole number (“2”).
5 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms2. The atoms of a given element are identical; the atomsof different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways3. Chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms – changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction.
6 Avogadro’s Hypothesis (1811) At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles5 liters of oxygen and 5 liters of nitrogen contain the same number of particle
7 Thomson Atomic Model (1903) An atom consists of a diffuse cloud of positive charge with the negative electrons embedded randomly in it. This model is often called plum (or raisin) pudding model.Observed cathode ray (produced at the negative electrode and repelled by the negative pole of an applied electric field.Cathode ray was a stream of negatively charged particles now called electrons
8 Deflection of Cathode Rays by an Applied Electric Field
10 Rutherford Atomic Model (1911) An atom with a dense center of positive charge (the nucleus) with electrons moving around the nucleus at a distance that is large relative to the nuclear radius. Nucleus is very small compared with the overall size of the atom. Nucleus is extremely dense, accounts for almost all of the atom’s mass.
11 Radioactivity Spontaneous emission of radiation Gamma () rays: high energy lightBeta () particles: high speed electronAlpha () particles (He2+): 2+ charge, charge twice that of electron and with opposite sign. The mass of an -particle is 7300 times that of the electron
12 Rutherford’s Experiment on a-particle Bombardment of Metal Foil
13 Expected and Actual Results of Rutherford’s Experiment
14 The Modern View of Atomic Structure The atom contains:Electrons: move around the nucleus (mass: 9.11 X kg, Charge 1-)Protons: found in the nucleus, they have a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron’s negative charge (mass: 1.67 X kg, charge 1+)Neutrons: found in the nucleus, virtually same mass as a proton but no charge. (mass: 1.67 X kg, charge: 0)
16 The Chemists’ Shorthand Atomic Symbols Atomic number (Z): number of protons, gives the symbol of the element (X)Mass number (A): Total number of protons and neutronsElemental form = Zero net chargeTherefore, # electrons = # of protons39Mass number K Element Symbol19Atomic number
17 Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. In nature mostelements contain mixtures of isotopes2311Na : 11 protons, 11 electrons, and 12 neutrons2411Na : 11 protons, 11 electrons, and 13 neutrons
19 Molecules and IonsChemical Bonds: The forces that hold atoms together in compounds. H2O, NO, CO2Covalent bonds: Covalent bonds result from atoms sharing electrons. Cl2Ionic bonds: Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.Molecule: A collection of covalently-bonded atoms. H2, O2
20 IonsIons: An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has a net positive charge or negative charge particle (an unequal number of protons and electrons) is obtained by removing or adding electrons. Na+, Cl-Cation: A positive ion (Na+, Mg2+, NH4+)Anion: A negative ion (Cl-, SO42-)
21 FormulasChemical Formula: In which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to indicate the relative numbers of atoms.CO2 indicates each molecule contains 1 atom of carbon and 2 atoms of oxygen.Structural Formula: In which the individual bonds are shown by lines. It may or may not indicates the actual shape of the molecules.O=C=O
22 Periodic TablePeriodic table is organized based on the properties that elements have in common with one another.Groups: Elements in the same vertical columns are in the same group have similar chemical properties.Group 1A: Alkali metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, FrGroup 2A: Alkaline earth metals: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, RaGroup 7A: Halogens: F, Cl, Br, I, At (astatine)Group 8A: Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn (radon)
24 Periodic TablePeriods: The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table are called periods.First period: horizontal row one contains H and HeSecond period: row two contains Li through NeLetters in the boxes are the symbols for the elementsAbbreviations are based on the current element names or the original names.The number above each symbol is the atomic number (number of protons)
25 Periodic Table Most of the elements are metals in the periodic table. Metals: Conduction of heat and electricity, malleability, ductility, lustrous, form positive ionsNonmetals: appear in the upper right hand corner of the periodic table except hydrogen. Nonmetals lack the physical properties that characterize the metal, gain electrons in chemical reaction and form negative ions, form covalent bond to each other.
26 Naming Compounds Binary Compounds: Compounds composed of two elements Binary Ionic Compounds (Type 1): contains a positive ion (cation) always written first in the formula and a negative ion (anion)Rules:The cation is always named first and the anion secondA monatomic (meaning one atom) cation takes its name from the name of the elementA monatomic anion is named by taking the root of the element name and adding –ide
28 Naming compoundsBinary Ionic Compounds (Type II): Metals that form more than one type of positive ion. Fe2+ and Fe3+Transition metals form several positive oxidation statesCharge on the metal ion must be specifiedRoman numeral indicates the charge of the cation. Iron (II) chloride and iron (III) chlorideThe ion with the higher charge has a name ending in –ic and the one with the lower charge has a name ending in –ous; ferrous chloride and ferric chloride
29 Naming Compounds Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions: Need to know the names of the polyatomic ions (Table 2.5).NH4+ ammonium, SO42- sulfateNa2SO4 Sodium sulfateKH2PO4 Potassium dihydrogen phosphateFe(NO3)3 Iron(III) nitrateCsClO4 Cesium perchlorateNaOCl sodium hypochloriteAl2(Cr2O7)3 Aluminum dichromateSr(CN)2 Strontium cyanide
30 Naming compounds Binary Covalent Compounds (Type III): Formed between two nonmetalsRules:The first element in the formula is named first, using the full element’s nameSecond element is name as if it were an anionUse prefixes to denote the number of atoms presentNever use mono – prefix for naming the first element
35 AcidsWhen dissolved in water produce a solution containing free H+ ions (protons)An acid is a molecule with one or more H+ ions attached to an anionIf the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix hydro – and the suffix –icHCl Hydrochloric acidHCN Hydrocyanic acid
36 AcidsIf the anion contains oxygen, the acidic name is formed from the root name of the anion with the suffix of –ic or –ous depending on the anionHNO3 Nitric acid (Nitrate anion)H2SO4 Sulfuric acid (Sulfate anion)H3PO4 Phosphoric acid (Phosphate anion)HC2H3O2 Acetic acid (Acetate anion)H2SO3 Sulfurous acid (sulfite anion)HNO2 Nitrous acid (nitrite anion)