Presentation on theme: "AN INTRODUCTION TO FAJAN’S RULES A guide for A level students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING."— Presentation transcript:
AN INTRODUCTION TO FAJAN’S RULES A guide for A level students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING
INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected topics at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It is based on the requirements of the AQA and OCR specifications but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes or it may be used for classroom teaching if an interactive white board is available. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at... www.argonet.co.uk/users/hoptonj/sci.htm Navigation is achieved by... either clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page orusing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING FAJAN’S RULES
Observations Not all ionic compounds have high melting points. Some covalently bonded compounds have higher than expected boiling points due to dipoles in their structure Reason in many substances the bonding is not 100% ionic or covalent Ideal ionic compoundcompletely separate, spherical ions electron densities are apart from each other However, if the positive ion has a high charge density it can distort the negative ion by attracting the outer shell electrons to give an area of electron density between the two species... a bit like a covalent bond INTRODUCTION
The feasibility of having some covalent character can be predicted using Fajan’s Rules. A compound is more likely to be covalent if the... CATION SMALL SIZEit is “highly polarising” and attracts electrons in the anion HIGH CHARGE ANION LARGE SIZEit is “highly polarisable” and will be easily distorted HIGH CHARGE N.B. Just because a substance is less likely to be covalent according to Fajan’s Rules doesn’t mean it will be ionic; it will remain covalent but have some ionic character (or vice versa). INTRODUCTION
CONTENTS EXTREMES OF CHEMICAL BONDING IONIC BONDING 3-DIMENSIONAL GIANT IONIC LATTICE ALTERNATE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IONS HIGH MELTING POINT SOLUBLE IN WATER MOLTEN STATE CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY ELECTRON DENSITY IS SEPARATED AND AROUND EACH SPECIES The ideal ionic compound has completely separate, spherical ions and the electron densities are apart from each other.
EXTREMES OF CHEMICAL BONDING COVALENT BONDING MOLECULAR (SIMPLE OR MACRO) SIMPLE MOLECULES HAVE LOW MELTING PTS - WEAK INTERMOLECULAR FORCES USUALLY INSOLUBLE IN WATER BUT SOME ARE HYDROLYSED MOLECULES DON’T CONDUCT ELECTRICITY IN THE MOLTEN STATE ELECTRON DENSITY IS BETWEEN EACH SPECIES H H : H The ideal covalent compound has the electron density exactly in between the species
BLACK AND WHITE OR SHADES OF GRAY? POLAR COVALENT BONDS IN MANY MOLECULES THERE ARE POLAR COVALENT BONDS MOLECULES TEND TO HAVE HIGHER MELTING/BOILING POINTS FOR THEIR MASS DIPOLE-DIPOLE INTERACTION OR HYDROGEN BONDING ARE PRESENT H ClH : Cl + - HYDROGEN CHLORIDE HAS SOME ‘IONIC CHARACTER’ - CHARGE SEPARATION HYDROGEN CHLORIDE REACTS WITH WATER In some covalent compounds, the electron density isn’t exactly in the centre between the species
BLACK AND WHITE OR SHADES OF GRAY? IONIC COMPOUNDS WHICH ‘MISBEHAVE’ LITHIUM CHLORIDE SHOULD BEHAVE LIKE A TYPICAL GROUP I CHLORIDE IT IS HYDROLYSED BY WATER AND HAS A ‘LOW’ MELTING POINT SMALL CATIONLARGE ANION HIGH CHARGE DENSITYELECTRONS FAR FROM NUCLEUS HIGHLY POLARISINGHIGHLY POLARISABLE THE POSITIVE ION ATTRACTS THE OUTER SHELL ELECTRONS OF THE NEGATIVE ION AND DISTORTS THE SPHERICAL IONIC SHAPE... THERE IS NOW SOME ELECTRON DENSITY BETWEEN THE SPECIES
FAJAN’S RULES A COMPOUND IS MORE LIKELY TO HAVE SOME COVALENT CHARACTER IF... THE CATION IS SMALL AND/OR HAS A HIGH CHARGE - HIGHLY POLARISING THE ANION IS LARGE AND/OR HAS A HIGH CHARGE - HIGHLY POLARISABLE MORE COVALENT CHARACTER
FAJAN’S RULES PROOF Chlorides can be used to demonstrate changes in bond type as the positive charge density increases due to higher charge (across Period 3) or larger size (down Group 1) ‘ charge’ionic rad. m.pt./°C solubilitybonding Period 3NaCl1+0.095nm 808 solubleionic MgCl 2 2+0.065nm 714 solubleionic AlCl 3 3+0.050nm 180 hydrolysedcovalent SiCl 4 4+0.041nm -70 hydrolysedcovalent Group 1LiCl1+0.060nm soluble cov. character NaCl1+0.095nm solubleionic KCl1+0.133nm solubleionic RbCl1+0.148nm solubleionic GREATER POSITIVE CHARGE DENSITY GREATER POSITIVE CHARGE DENSITY
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