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Naming Inorganic Compounds Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Memorize: 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements 3) Latin names of elements.

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Presentation on theme: "Naming Inorganic Compounds Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Memorize: 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements 3) Latin names of elements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Naming Inorganic Compounds Vladimíra Kvasnicová

2 Memorize: 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements 3) Latin names of elements 4) names of common cations and anions 5) common names of selected compounds

3 Memorize: 1) classification of elements see Periodic table of Elements

4 The figure is found at (September 2007)http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/periodic_table.gif

5 The figure is found at (September 2007)http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif

6 Memorize: 1) classification of elements see Periodic table  alkali metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr (IA)  alkali earth metals: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba (IIA)  halogens: F, Cl, Br, I (VIIA)  inert gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn (VIIIA)

7 Memorize: 1) classification of elements see Periodic table  nonmetals: H (IA) B (IIIA) C, Si (IVA) N, P, As (VA) O, S, Se (VIA) halogens (VIIA) central atoms of acids

8 Memorize: 1) classification of elements see Periodic table  transition metals: Cu, Ag, Au (IB) Zn, Cd, Hg (IIB) Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Mo, Pt  other metals: Al, Sn, Sb, Pb, Bi

9 Memorize: 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements  symbols are derived from Latin names of elements H = Hydrogenium = hydrogen Na = Natrium = sodium Ag = Argentum = silver (Ar = Argon)

10 Memorize: 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements 3) Latin names of elements  symbols of elements  used in naming of some compounds  used in medicine

11 SymbolLatin nameEnglish name NaNatriumsodium KKaliumpotassium SnStannumtin PbPlumbumlead SbStibiumantimony WWolframiumtungsten FeFerrumiron CuCuprumcopper AgArgentumsilver AuAurumgold HgHydrargyrummercury

12 Important suffixes ACIDanion oxygen-freehydro ic acid-ide oxo-acid lower ox.state -ous acid-ite oxo-acid higher ox.state -ic acid-ate

13 oxidative state of cation suffix lower -ous higher -ic

14 Memorize: 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements 3) Latin names of elements 4) names of common cations and anions  naming inorganic compounds is based on the names

15 Names of CATIONS 1.one oxidation state name of the cation = name of the element  H, Li, Na, K, Ag +I  Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn+II  B, Al+III see position of the elements in the Periodic table

16 The figure is found at (September 2007)http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif

17 Names of CATIONS 2.two oxidation states root of Latin name + two suffixes: lower oxidation state: -ous higher oxidation state: -ic  Cu, Hg both found in oxidat. states:+I/+II  Fe, Co +II/+III  Sn, Pb +II/+IV

18 Names of ANIONS 1.one oxidation state a) root of Latin name + suffix:-ide  halogen → halideF, Cl, Br, I-I  hydrogen → hydride H-I  oxygen → oxideO-II  sulfur → sulfideS-II  hydroxideOH-1  cyanideCN-1

19 Names of ANIONS 1.one oxidation state b) root of Latin name + suffix:-ate  carbonateCO 3 -2 C IV  silicateSiO 3 -2 Si IV  chromateCrO 4 -2 Cr VI  borateBO 4 -3 B III oxidation state of oxygen in anions is always –II (exception: in peroxides = -I)

20 Names of ANIONS 2.two oxidation states root of Latin name + two suffixes: lower oxidative state: -ite higher oxidative state: -ate  nitrite / nitrate NO 2 - /NO 3 - N +III/+V  phosphite/phosphate PO 3 -3 /PO 4 -3 P +III/+V  sulfite / sulfate SO 3 -2 /SO 4 -2 S +IV/+VI  selenite/selenate SeO 3 -2 /SeO 4 -2 Se +IV/+VI

21 Names of ANIONS 3.more oxidative states root of Latin name + prefixes and suffixes: the lovest oxidative state: hypo- -ite lower oxidative state: -ite higher oxidative state: -ate the highest oxidative state: hyper- -ate  Cl, Br, I, Mn (hypochlorite, chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate)

22 Name of a compound = name of cation + name of anion NaCl = sodium chloride KOH = potassium hydroxide

23 Memorize: 1) classification of elements 2) symbols and English names of elements 3) Latin names of elements 4) names of common cations and anions 5) common names of selected compounds = trivial names

24 Compounds called by their common names H 2 OwaterH 3 O + hydronium NH 3 ammoniaNH 4 + ammonium NOnitric oxide NaClsalt HCO 3 - bicarbonate

25 Types of compounds ionic compounds are composed of: cation and anion cation is positively charged anion is negatively charged naming the compounds: cation name + anion name molecule: its total charge is ZERO

26 Types of compounds 1.OXIDES  „cation oxide“  anion: O -II  cation:  nonmetal: Greek prefixes  metal: -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS) (OS) = oxidation state in the parentheses monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca un- deca do- deca

27 The figure is found at (September 2007)http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/geology/images/periodic_table.gif

28 Types of compounds 1.OXIDES  COcarbon monoxide  CO 2 carbon dioxide  CaOcalcium oxide  Al 2 O 3 aluminium oxide  PbOlead(II) oxide or plumbous oxide  PbO 2 lead(IV) oxide or plumbic oxide

29 Types of compounds 2.PEROXIDES  „cation peroxide“  anion: O 2 -I (-O-O-)  cation: element name H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide BaO 2 barium peroxide

30 Types of compounds 3.HYDROXIDES  „cation hydroxide“  anion: OH -1  cation:  metal: -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS) (OS) = oxidation state in the parentheses

31 Types of compounds 3.HYDROXIDES  KOHpotassium hydroxide  Al(OH) 3 aluminium hydroxide  Fe(OH) 2 iron(II) hydroxide or ferrous hydroxide  Fe(OH) 3 iron(III) hydroxide or ferric hydroxide

32 Types of compounds ACIDS  cation = H +  anion: monoatomic or polyatomic  hydro –ic acid → -id  –ic acid → –ate  –ous acid → -ite  oxygen free acids: H n X  oxo acids: H n XO n n = 1, 2, 3,... X = mostly nonmetal

33 Types of compounds 4.OXYGEN FREE ACIDS  „hydro.....-ic acid“  anion: F -I, Cl -I, Br -I, l -I, S -II, CN -1  cation: H + HF = hydrofluoric acid HCN = hydrocyanic acid

34 Types of compounds 5.salts of OXYGEN FREE ACIDS  „cation.....-ide“(= cation anion)  anion: F -I, Cl -I, Br -I, l -I, S -II, CN -1  cation: monoatomic or polyatomic NaCl = sodium chloride NH 4 Cl = ammonium chloride

35 Types of compounds 6.OXO ACIDS  the name is based on the name of its anion:  –ous acid → -ite  –ic acid → -ate H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid → anion: SO 3 2- = sulfite H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid → anion: SO 4 2- = sulfate H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid → anion: CO 3 2- = carbonate anion: polyatomic (central atom = nonmetal) cation: H +

36 Acid forming elements B III, C IV, Si IV (-ic  -ate) N III/V, P III/V, As III/V, Sb III/V, S IV/VI, Se IV/VI (-ous  -ite, -ic  -ate) Mn IV/VI/VII (-ite, -ate, per-...-ate) Cl, Br, I I/III/V/VII (hypo-...-ite, -ite, -ate, per-...-ate)

37 Types of compounds 7.salts of OXO ACIDS  „cation anion“  cation: monoatomic or polyatomic -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)  anion: polyatomic FeSO 4 = ferrous sulfate or iron(II) sulfate Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = ferric sulfate or iron(III) sulfate

38 Types of compounds 8.double salts of ACIDS  „cation1 cation2 anion“ or  „cation anion1 anion2“  cation: monoatomic or polyatomic -ous/-ic suffix or Stock system (OS)  anion: monoatomic or polyatomic  increasing oxidative state, alphabetical order

39 Types of compounds 8.double salts of ACIDS  „cation1 cation2 anion“ KMgF 3 potassium magnesium fluoride KLiSO 4 potassium lithium sulfate Total charge of molecule is ZERO

40 Types of compounds 8.double salts of ACIDS  „cation anion1 anion2“ CaCl(ClO)calcium chloride hypochlorite Cu 3 (CO 3 ) 2 F 2 copper(II) carbonate fluoride Total charge of molecule is ZERO

41 Types of compounds 9.acid salts of ACIDS  „cation hydrogen anion“ KH 2 PO 4 potassium dihydrogen phosphate K 2 HPO 4 (di)potassium hydrogen phosphate K 3 PO 4 (tri)potassium phosphate (not acidic) NH 4 HCO 3 ammonium hydrogen carbonate Ca(HS) 2 calcium hydrogen sulfide

42 Types of compounds 10.basic salts of ACIDS  „cation hydroxy anion“ Mg(OH)Clmagnesium hydroxychloride Sb(OH) 2 (NO 3 )antimony(III) dihydroxynitrate Total charge of molecule is ZERO

43 Types of compounds 11.HYDRATES OF SALTS  „cation anion multiple hydrate“ MgCl 2. 6H 2 Omagnesium chloride hexahydrate CaHPO 4. 2H 2 Ocalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate

44 Types of compounds 12.THIOACIDS AND THIOSALTS  „thio.... acid“ H 2 S 2 O 3 thiosulfuric acid(H 2 SO 4 = sulfuric acid) HSCNthiocyanic acid(HOCN = cyanic acid)  „cation thio....anion“ K 2 S 2 O 3 potassium thiosulfate KSCNpotassium thiocyanate

45 Types of compounds 13.POLYACIDS AND SALTS  „ multiple.... acid“ H 2 B 4 O 7 tetraboric acid H 2 Cr 2 O 7 dichromic acid  „cation multiple....anion“ Na 2 B 4 O 7 sodium tetraborate K 2 Cr 2 O 7 potassium dichromate

46 Keep in mind the rules: 1.names of compounds are derived from the names of cations, anions and polyatomic ions: cation anion (NaCl = sodium chloride) 2.all binary compounds end in –ide CaO, H 2 O 2, NaCl, HF, ZnS 3.binary compounds composed of two nonmetals: Greek prefixes SO 2, N 2 O 5, CO

47 Keep in mind the rules: 4.binary compounds composed of metal ion with fixed or variable oxidation numbers and nonmetal ion: no Greek prefixes a) -ous / -ic suffix system b) Stock system (prefered) CuCl 2, CuCl, Fe 2 O 3, FeO

48 Keep in mind the rules: 5.ternary compounds:  hydrogen cation H + (= acid) or metal cation (= salt or hydroxide) (fixed or variable oxidation number)  and a polyatomic anion (e.g. SO 4 2- or OH 1- ) H 2 SO 4 Na 2 SO 4 NaOH Total charge of a molecule = 0

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