Presentation on theme: "Action Research Proposal"— Presentation transcript:
1 Action Research Proposal Eleanor HamiltonEDU:671/Fundamentals of Educational ResearchKathy HooverNovember 25, 2013
2 IntroductionIt is true that the “concern with assessment in the early childhood field is not new. Decades of debate are summarized in the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) publication Reaching Potentials: Appropriate Curriculum and Assessment for Young Children (Bredekamp and Rosegrant (1992). This research project intends to show that early assessments in preschool do have an impact on the preschool child.It is true that the “concern with assessment in the early childhood field is not new. Decades of debate are summarized in the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) publication Reaching Potentials: Appropriate Curriculum and Assessment for Young Children (Bredekamp and Rosegrant (1992). This research project intends to show that early assessments in preschool do have an impact on the preschool child.This presentation will show just how preschoolser are impacted if the help is provided. One way that the help is provided is through the assessments. Some of the assessments tools that are currently used in the preschools include the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Social Emotional (ASQ-SE), Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3 (ASQ 3), and the Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP). Each of these tools has its own significant factors that are used to assess the child. For example the ASQ/SE is completed by the parent. This formis completed within the first ten days of school. In the questionnaire is ask the parents if they have any concerns about the child and if so what are the concerns. If the parent sttaed they do have a concern then a referral for further assessments are made. However this can only be with parental consent.
3 Area of focus The purpose of this study is to show What impacts early assessments haveon preschool children?According to Mill (2014) “An area of focus identifies the purpose of your study” (70). My area of focus is What impacts do early assessments have on preschool children? I believe that when children are assessed early developmental delays can be caught. If there are developmental delays the teachers and other specialist will be able to intervene and help those children. When the teachers have all of the necessary help at their finger tips then they can create individual goal for the child. If the assessment are completed then this will help them do their job better.
4 MethodologyAll children were recruited through letters of invitation sent to parents or guardians through their classroom teachers. Parents returned signed consent forms and provided demographic information about their children. Assessments were conducted on an individual basis in classrooms or in spaces close to the classrooms. All assessments were administered by the teachers within the first 30 days of school starting.All children were recruited through letters of invitation sent to parents or guardians through their classroom teachers. Parents returned signed consent forms and provided demographic information about their children. Assessments were conducted on an individual basis in classrooms or in spaces close to the classrooms. All assessments were administered by the teachers within the first 30 days of school starting. The assessments were then scored and if need the intervention of making the referral was started. For the rest of the time the students were observed in all domains of the classroom ex. physical, social/emotional, cognitive, language and literacy. The teachers/members of the team took anecdotal notes and used some of the children's work samples for the research.
5 Literature ReviewLove (2010) stated “Overall, averaging across all program sites and all children and families in the sample, Early Head Start programs showed significant impacts on a wide range of child and parent outcomes when the children were 2 and 3 years old. Love (2010) further stated “The positive program impacts appeared early and the magnitude of the impacts remained relatively constant from age 2 to age 5”.All of the literature that I used in the research provides me with information, data, and methods of how the data was collected in their perspective studies. They further validated my research as to the impacts that early assessment have on preschool age children.
6 Literature Review cont. According to the Head Start Impact Study. Final Report (Puma, Bell, Cook, Heid, Shapiro, Broene, & ... Westat, I. c.,2010) Which used several different characteristics to establish that impacts from head start and preschools were significant greater than those of the children that did not attend and get the early access to school. This reports validates the claim that children that attend preschool and head start programs do better in school. The study also followed some of the children to the third grade.The scholarly articles, reports, and other, literature that was used in the research helped to see that the impact was made when the child had access to preschool early and the assessment could be made. When this happened the child was able to get referred if needed.
7 Explanation of Problem The observations that led to my interest in this action research project were found after reviewing the current data from the children that had been assessed versus the children that had not been assessed. The data showed that the children that were assessed early and had a developmental plan showed significant progress in their developmental growth. It also showed that the children that had not been assessed lacked in certain skills; this caused a great concern for me because some of the child had not yet been assessed. This could also hinder the referral process for interventionThe problem is that some of the parents do not complete the questionnaires in order for the child to assessed parental consent must be given. The observations that led to my interest in this action research project were found after reviewing the current data from the children that had been assessed versus the children that had not been assessed. The data showed that the children that were assessed early and had a developmental plan showed significant progress in their developmental growth. It also showed that the children that had not been assessed lacked in certain skills; this caused a great concern for me because the child had not yet been assessed. After observing one child I saw an area of concern that needed to be addressed but without parental consent (Belmont Report, 1979) no assessments could be performed on that child. So when it came to working with that child the teacher only had her observations to go by.
8 Variablesa. The defined factors were preschool ages children of diverse backgrounds.b. A couple of the learners were English Language Learners and needed to have some things translated for them.c. The children’s scores from the assessments were defined and showed if they needed to be reassessed or referred for further services.Sometimes the child may just need extra time to get acquainted with the classroom and the teachers. The team observed on two different children. The teacher chose to give them time to get used to the classroom and reassesses them in two months. They had made a significant amount of progress and no further services were needed. However on some of the children immediate referrals were made and they started receiving services.
9 Research QuestionsWhat do the teachers do once the assessment questionnaire is completed?How is the information used to help thestudent advance to the next stage?How are the results recorded to show progress?When starting a study there are many questions that are asked before the process starts. In this research project the questions I wanted answered include finding out how early assessments impact the child. In doing so I defined three questions that relate to the tools that teachers in preschool and head start programs use to assess the children. One of the tools is The Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP-2010). This is the tool that shows the progress of the child and is used three times a year. It is ongoing and provides the teacher with the most information. The next tool is Ages & Stages Questionnaire 3 (ASQ 3). This tool is completed by the teachers within the first thirty days of school. It provides the teachers with information on tings that the child is able to do and the things the child needs more help doing. It is mostly a hand-on approach questionnaire the teachers asks the child to do certain things and then watches as the child completes the tasks. This assessment is done one-on-one with teacher and child. The ext toll is the Ages & Stages Questionnaire/Emotional/Social (ASQ/SE). This tool is completed by the parents and is done within the first ten days of school. In using this questionnaire the parents are providing the teachers with insights from the parents view. When this form is completed the parents are giving the consent for further assessments because they are stating concerns and asking further assessments. If the parents do not complete the form they are not providing their consent. Mills (2014) states “Develop questions that breathe life into the area-of-focus statement and help provide a focus for your data collection plan” (p.70).Once the teachers have assessed the child they score the assesssment for those children that fall into a certain category they can either be re-evaluated after 2 months or they can generate a referral. If they generate the referral the process will then start and the specialist will be contacted with parental consent. The information from the assessment is used to set the individual goals and objectives for the child. The teacher then implements the activities on the lesson plan. The plan is what the teacher and child will be working on in the classroom. The results are recorded to show if the child is making progress in categories. They are not yet, sometimes, building, or mastered. The chilld is making progress when he/she can do several of the activities in several areas of the classroom. One time does show that the child has mastered a skill.
10 Locus of controlIn this research the teacher has full locus of control because it is her classroom and she can maneuver around to make sure we are able to observe the child in many of the domains.According to Mills (2014) “By definition, an action research area of focus and research questions must be answerable and in the teacher researcher’s locus of control” (p.218). In order for us to be able to rate the child and see if the assessments has actually placed him/her in the correct areas we would have to see the child working on many things throughout the research time frame. If there is an area that we needed to observe the teacher could direct that child to the Area and we would be ableto observe and take notes. If the child went to the area on their own we would also document that. This happens when the child has reached their social/emotional abilities. Meaning they feel comfortable enough to mix in with the children in certain activities.
11 InterventionThe intervention would be to make the referrals for the child to provide them with the necessary services once the assessment has been completed.One might ask themselves what is early intervention? The answer would be early intervention is a system of services that helps young children with developmental delays or disabilities. Early intervention also focuses on helping young children to learn the basic skills that typically develop during the first three years of life, for example: physical, cognitive, language, social/emotional and self-help skills. All of the mentioned are things that preschool assessments can detect. Finding them early is the key and providing the necessary services is the answer. For the purpose of this research project the intervention is the referral. Once the assessment is completed the referral will be generated to provide the necessary services for the child.
12 Group membershipThe group members on my team consist of two head teachers, three assistant teachers and myself. We will each be responsible for collecting certain data related to the project. The first team member is in charge of passing out and collecting the surveys. The second member is going to assign the numbers and keep track of who is doing what. The third member is going to chart the data. The fourth member is going to input the data and the fifth member is going to follow the progress of each childA group is defined as a collection of individuals who have frequent contact with each other, have a similar background, similar values, and who all work together to achieve a common set of goals. The group members on my team consist of two head teachers and three assistant teachers. They will each be responsible for collecting certain data. Ihave chosen these people because we all have a common goal working with and impacting the lives of children. I think that we will all do the best things for the children, their parents and teaching in general. The team will each collect certain information in the research project.According to Mills (2014) “Resolution of any issues that emerge at this stage is critical to the continued success and longevity of the action research team” (167). The team that I have assessable work together on a daily bases and if any problems come we will all be able to work on it and make the needed adjustments. We will be learning from each other has work on the things that are best for this project.
13 NegotiationsThe only negotiations was that were needed was that before we involved any student in the research we had to make that we had parental consent and would inform them of how the research was coming along twice throughout the school year. The months agreed on would be December and April.Before we started the research I talked to the sirector over that gaency and made sure it would be okay to do the research. She stated as long as I get the parents permission and inform them of what was taking place then it would be ok. She also provide me with the materials and if needed any time that I needed with the team members.
14 Ethical GuidelinesEthical issue are very important and they come in the form of… Informed Consent Freedom from harm Anonymity ConfidentialityMy philosophy of teaching is that I believe all children are to be treated in a manner that shows them full consideration of their rights and privacy. I believe that children are unique and learn in different ways and that no two children are alike or learn alike. As an educator in an early childhood program I follow the ethical code of conduct that is in place by The National Association for the Education of Young Children (2010). These are guidelines for behavior in an early educational program. I value the code and practice it in my daily life. This Code of Ethics follows most of all of the ethical codes that the Department of Education does. As far as the research and intervention for my study goes the ethical codes that I will follow include; competence, privacy and confidentiality, record keeping, research publication, avoiding harm, informed consent, mentoring, supervision and non-exploitation. I will further follow any and all Ethical Issues that are mentioned in the Belmont Report. I find that report to have met all of the ethical issues that working on a research paper entails and as well as a teacher in a school environment. Mills (2014) states “The role of ethics in action research can be considered in terms of how each of us treats the individuals with whom we interact at our school setting: students, parents, volunteers, administrators, and teaching colleagues.Mills (2014) further stated that two rules of “Ethics are that participants should not be harmed in anyway-physically, mentally, or socially-and that researchers obtain participants’ informed consent” (p.27).
15 TimelineThe timeline for this research project will take place from September to May. Phase 1- First 45 days from the start date the Developmental Profile is completed and scored September/October. Results recorded Phase 2- Second Developmental Profile completed February/March. Results recorded Phase 3 Third Developmental Profile completed and charted/May. Final scored recorded.The timeline will range some where between months depending on the child’s start date. This is because there are certain things that have to be completed by a certain amount of days. Although it will not affect the completion date because all assessments have to be completed before June. Providing more than enough time for the scores and other data information to be collected.
16 Statement of resources The resources for the research project were provided by the agency. They included the paper, computer, charts, index cards and the staff. Since all of this was already at the site there were additional resources needed.The resources were provided by the agency. They included paper, computer access, poster booard for the graphing charts, indes cards and the staff. Since the staff was already on the payroll we worked on the research during nap time. No extra time was needed off the clock. The staff generously gave their time.
17 Data CollectionThrough the school year the team will be collecting data three different times. Fro three different data assessment tools. This will be done to see the progress that is being made by the students. The assessments tools will include: Ages & Stages 3 Questionnaire Ages & Stages Social/Emotional Questionnaire Desired Results Developmental Profile (2010)The qualitative data collection method included two different questionnaires, desired results developmental profile, observations, anecdotal records, work samples, audio and video recordings. Mills (2014) states “The kinds of data you collect would include descriptive , narrative, and even non written forms” (p.84). Some the data that was collected in this research include just that. They come in the form of work samples and the narratives written by the teachers but dictated by the children. These are the may observations and work related samples. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires are by
18 Data AnalysisThe data analysis will help me to determine if there should another form of early assessments for the start of school and if there needs to be another form of intervention. I am hopeful that the method that we are currently using will be adequate and we will be able to continuing with the method we are using.
19 ConclusionAs first stated children that attend preschool are able to get that intervention early. For example if they need help with their language development it will be detected from the assessments. Or if they need social/ emotional intervention referrals will be generated to get them the necessary help. This research shows that if young children are allowed to be assessed early the help is there for them. The studies are proof that early intervention is the key. Parents should not be afraid of getting their children the help they need once they enter preschool.
20 ReferencesLove, J. M., & Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, (. (2010). Effects of Early Head Start Prior to Kindergarten Entry: The Importance of Early Experience. Society For Research On Educational Effectiveness, National Association for the Education of Young Children and National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (2003). Early Childhood Curriculum, Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Building an Effective, Accountable System in Programs for Children Birth through Age 8. Washington, DC: Authors. Available Retrieved from Pretti-Frontczak, K., Kowalski, K., & Brown, R. (2002). Preschool Teachers' Use of Assessments and Curricula: A Statewide Examination. Exceptional Children, 69(1), Retrieved from
21 ReferencesPuma, M., Bell, S., Cook, R., Heid, C., Shapiro, G., Broene, P., & Westat, I. c. (2010). Head Start Impact Study. Final Report. Administration For Children & Families, Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (1979). Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. The Belmont Report. Retrieved from Krause, N. (2002). A comprehensive strategy for developing closed-ended survey items for use in studies of older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. 57B (5), S Retrieved from
22 ReferencesU.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (1979). Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. The Belmont Report. Retrieved from `Krause, N. (2002). A comprehensive strategy for developing closed-ended survey items for use in studies of older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. 57B (5), S Retrieved from