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The Research Paper Learning how to write about literature using literary criticism.

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1 The Research Paper Learning how to write about literature using literary criticism

2 A Review of Some Important Classroom Rules New Seats: Minimize distractions Be Prepared: writing utensil, necessary papers, etc. 1 st offense = reminder; 2 nd offense = call home & lunch detention; 3 rd offense = ASD Hall passes: not issued during lesson Restroom passes: 3/quarter Tardies to class: 3 = call home, 4 = ASD Any work completed this week will go on 4 th quarter; gradebook is closed!

3 Research Paper & Grades Finished product = 150 points Classroom activities = approximately 50 points If you do not complete the research paper, you will fail the 4 th quarter. If you bomb the research paper, there may not be enough point opportunities to allow you to pass the 4 th quarter.

4 Work Dates and Due Dates Work Dates: We will be working on this project beginning today, March 10-Friday, March 28. BONUS Due Date: Bonus points (10) awarded if you turn in paper on Friday, March 28, 2014 or earlier. Due Date: No bonus points, but not late if you turn in paper on Monday, April 7, Late Date: (1) letter grade will be deducted from for each day late, beginning Tuesday, April 8 th.

5 What am I writing about and how long does it have to be? You will be reading a short story and analyzing how the author uses literary devices to discuss the theme of the story. 7 paragraphs, 3-4 pages, typed: Intro, 5 body paragraphs, conclusion

6 Attendance and Use of Class Time It is IMPERATIVE that you be here every day and use the class time given to you. The unit is designed to be completed in class. If you miss class time, you will be behind and be responsible for understanding the work that you missed.

7 Learning Targets… Target: I will recognize the reason why I am writing and who I am writing to. Essential Question: Why is it important to identify audience when planning writing?

8 Learning Targets… Target: I will determine the purpose and usefulness of a source and organize my research material. Core Question: How do I write an effective research paper? Essential Question: How do I evaluate and organize information and select related sources to support my argument?

9 Learning Targets… Target: I will write questions to guide my research and review information related to my topic. Core Question: How do I write an effective research paper? Essential Question: How do I compose and adapt research questions to narrow my topic?

10 Learning Targets… Target: I will analyze the author’s argument or viewpoint in writing. Essential Question: How do authors express their ideas in a text?

11 Learning Targets… Target: I will write a paper that attempts to persuade a reader to accept a certain belief or position by using information and examples from my research sources. Core Question: How do I write an effective research paper? Essential Question: What techniques do I need to use in order to write a persuasive composition?

12 Learning Targets… Target: I will use different types and lengths of sentences in my writing. Essential Question: How do varied sentence structures and lengths improve writing?

13 Learning Targets… Target: I will read over my paper to make sure that it follows assignment requirements mainly spelling and grammar. Essential Question: Why is it important to proofread?

14 DAY one Put your name on the folder All material is to be kept in the folder. It is NOT to leave the room. All work will be done in class. At the end of the period, put the folder in box labeled for your class period.

15 Day One continued… In addition, keep in mind the following prompt: What (5) literary devices can you identify in the author’s work and what point does the author make by incorporating them? For example: In “The Cask of Amontillado”, Edgar Allan Poe uses irony, allusion, and point of view in order to convey the theme that revenge is not always achieved. --DB, racism can destroy a family The literary devices you may choose from are: Foreshadowing, characterization, symbolism, irony, flashback, and conflict

16 Day one continued… You will receive a short story (story that designed to be read in one sitting) to read during class. While you are reading, be aware of what literary devices the author uses— underline, highlight or keep a list of them as you come across them. Use the list of literary terms as reference.

17 Days 1-2: Now what? Step 1: read the story. Step 2: go back through the story and identify literary devices. For example, identify setting, protagonist, antagonist, conflict, etc. You may do this by highlighting, underlining, or making notes in the margins. Step 3: begin to fill in the Literary Devices Worksheet.

18 Day 2 or 3 Complete Literary Devices Worksheet with group members. Make the most of your time— you won’t have very many opportunities to work as a group. You will use your literary devices worksheet to write a summary of your story as well as construct your thesis statement.

19 Day 4: Story Summary Check for completion of literary devices worksheet You will be writing an 8-10 sentence summary of your short story. Example: Poe’s “Cask of Amontillado” Note MLA format Begin writing summary using literary devices worksheet

20 Plot Map: “The Cask of Amontillado” Exposition: (protagonist, antagonist, setting, hint of the possible conflict) Montresor, Fortunato, Italian festival of Carnivale—50 years earlier Rising Action: Fortunato insulted Montresor, wants revenge; takes Fortunato into the vault below to examine a case of wine Climax: secures Fortunato to the wall, seals him in Falling Action: Walks away Resolution: Gets his revenge

21 Summary of "The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe Montresor, the protagonist, relates an incident which happened fifty years earlier, during the Italian festival called“Carnivale”. He states that Fortunato, the antagonist and fellow wine connoisseur, insulted him, and therefore, according to his family's motto, must be avenged. Montresor uses their shared interest in wine to lure Fortunato into the catacombs beneath the Montresor family home under the pretense of sampling from a cask of Amontillado, an extremely rare wine. The suggestion of consulting Lucresi, another wine connisseur, is also used by Montresor as bait to draw Fortunato into the trap. Because of his hubris, or excessive pride, Fortunato falls for the trick and continues further into the catacombs in search of the Amontillado. Eventually the men come to a large recess in a granite wall, where Montresor chains Fortunato to the wall and proceeds to brick up the wall, sealing Fortunato in and causing him to suffocate. Thus Montresor avenges his insult.

22 Day 5: Type Summary 8-10 sentence summary of short story due by the END of the class period

23 Student Name Mrs. Snyder English 2CP 25 March 2011 Proper MLA Format for your Summary Assignment: -Times New Roman, size 12 -Double-space ENTIRE paper -Heading begins on first line of paper; do NOT insert a header -Heading on LEFT side of paper -Date format -Title: Summary of “Short Story Title” by Author -Center title

24 Story Summary Rubric with name on it Literary Devices Worksheet Typed story summary I do NOT want your rough draft

25 Day 6: Thesis Statement & Intro to Literary Criticism Handout Use literary devices worksheet to write thesis statement. Choose literary devices that you understand and feel confident in discussing. You may choose from the following literary devices for your story: Desiree’s Baby: characterization, conflict, foreshadowing, flashback, symbolism, irony The Lottery: characterization, conflict, foreshadowing, symbolism, irony An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge: foreshadowing, flashback, characterization, conflict, irony **Ask Mrs. Snyder about any other literary devices not listed here.

26 Literary Criticism Continued Read and examine the literary criticism provided for you. Identify author background information by highlighting/underlining the following info: Names of other stories, works of literature the author has written Awards or honors the author has received Subject matter that the author tends to focus on Geographical area/time period the author tends to focus on Public reaction to the story

27 Literary Criticism: Author Background Use your literary criticism packet to find information about your author. With a partner, complete the author background worksheet. After you are finished, begin examining your literary criticism.

28 Literary Criticism Focus in on the five literary devices that you have selected to discuss in your research paper (see thesis statement). Highlight/label the portions of the articles that discuss your particular devices. You will need to use (3) different sources!!! By the END of the period, you should have found information relating to your thesis statement in your research. Tomorrow we will be working to explicate (analyze) this information and apply it to your thesis statement.

29 Literary Criticism… Re-examine the portions of the articles you highlighted. Write a 1-2 sentence paraphrase for each. This ensures that you understand the material and the point the author is trying to make. I have provided an example for you using an article on Poe’s Cask of Amontillado. Your quotes need to come from (2) different sources. They may not come from the SAME source.

30 Example: Irony in Poe’s The Cask of Amontillado “Several critics have pointed to Montresor's irrational behavior just before he walls in Fortunato, to the ambiguity of the Montresor coat of arms, and to indications that the narrator suffers from a guilty conscience, to support their contention that Montresor does not satisfy the criteria for the perfect act of revenge that he enumerates at the start of Edgar Allan Poe's “The Cask of Amontillado”. Building on those arguments. I would like to suggest that Fortunato literally and figuratively gets the last laugh in the tale because he knows what lies ahead for Montresor and himself in the next world. Significantly, Fortunato is the one who first alludes to what J. Gerald Kennedy calls Montresor's ‘theological’ guilt when he calls out, ‘For the love of God, Montresor,’ shortly before he is entombed” (Gruesser 1). Source: Poe’s Cask of Amontillado by John Gruesser

31 Example paraphrase/notes Some critics believe that Montresor did not commit the perfect act of revenge. Gruesser believes that Fortunato, even though dead, gets revenge on Montresor, knowing what is in store for Montresor in the afterlife. This is an example of irony because it is not Montresor who achieves revenge over Fortunato, it is actually Fortunato who achieves revenge over Montresor.

32 For Today’s Class You Will Need: Literary Criticism packet Literary Criticism handout from yesterday

33 Checkpoint #1 Organize your folder in the following order: Story Questions Literary Devices handout Thesis statement (half sheet) Author background worksheet Introduction paragraph (notebook) Primary Source (yellow paper) Story

34 Example: Allusion in Poe’s Cask of Amontillado “Ultimately, however, like Satan in ‘Paradise Lost’ and Salieri in ‘Amadeus’, Montresor learns that his victory has been a hollow one. Fatally pinioning Fortunato in an upright position and placing him in a tomb, Montresor has unwittingly reenacted the Crucifixion” (Gruesser 2). Source: Poe’s Cask of Amontillado by John Gruesser

35 Example Paraphrase/Notes The reader is expected to understand the references to the poem “Paradise Lost” by John Milton and the 18 th century composer Antonio Salieri and his composition, “Amadeus”. Both figures, Satan and Salieri, achieve victory for only a short period of time, only to have their victims earn the final victory.

36 Literary Criticism… Re-examine the portions of the articles you highlighted. Write a 1-2 sentence paraphrase for each. This ensures that you understand the material and the point the author is trying to make. I have provided an example for you using an article on Poe’s Cask of Amontillado. **Your quotes need to come from (3) different sources. They may not all come from the SAME source. **By the end of the period: I will be checking your work to make sure that you have (5) quotations along with (5) notes/paraphrases

37 Primary Sources (Short Story) 1.Examine your short story to find a quote from your story that relates to each of your literary devices. You should have (5) quotes. 2.You are using the SAME (5) literary devices that you described in your thesis and examined in your literary criticism. 3.A quote does NOT mean that it is something spoken by a character. A quote is simply words written by someone other than YOU and therefore must be put into quotation marks. However, you may choose a quote that is spoken by a character. 4.Each quote should be in quotation marks and should be followed by the author’s last name and page number of the quote in parentheses.

38 Primary Source Quote: Irony in Poe’s Cask of Amontillado “’For the love of God, Montresor!’” (Poe 625). I want to check your quotations by the END of the period. Bring up your BLUE and YELLOW sheets.

39 Friday, 3/28: Write your introduction Write your intro paragraph on the MLA formatted paper Why do authors use literary elements? Author background (information sheet ) Thesis statement

40 Outline: Intro paragraph A. Why do authors use literary elements? Some possible answers are: (2-3 sentences) to enhance their writing, create and maintain a reader’s interest, to relay a deeper meaning in a story, to capture important events, and to appeal to a reader’s emotions. -Restate the question as part of your answer. Do NOT just list the answers; incorporate them into sentences -DO NOT refer to Kate Chopin yet. We are only discussing authors in general.

41 Outline, Roman Numeral I, continued B. Author’s Writing Style: Here is where you will discuss some of the background information we found earlier. Begin to rough draft 6-8 sentences discussing the author’s background and writing style. (What subjects does the author write about? Time period? Location? Other types of writing? Other pieces of literature author is known for? Public reaction to the literature? IN YOUR OWN WORDS!!!!!!!! (no quotes) First time you mention Kate Chopin, you will need to use her full name. Afterwards, you may refer to her as Chopin. C. Thesis Statement: Copy your thesis statement.

42 Outline, Roman Numeral II II. Write the first literary device from your thesis statement on the line. Example from Poe: Irony A. Primary Source Quote: This is a quote from your short story. Make sure to put it in quotation marks and follow it with the author’s last name and the page # of the quote in parentheses. (Copy this from your YELLOW paper.) Example: “’For the love of God, Montresor!’” (Poe 625).

43 Outline, Roman Numeral II, continued C. Secondary Source Quote: Literary Criticism. This is a quote from your literary criticism. Make sure to put it in quotation marks and follow it with the author’s last name and the page # of the quote in parentheses. Example from Poe: “Fortunato literally and figuratively gets the last laugh in the tale because he knows what lies ahead for Montresor and himself in the next world” (Gruesser 1). Follow the same steps for Roman Numerals III- VI, letters A and C only!

44 Outline, Roman Numeral IIB B. Ideas for interpretation: This is a sentence or two detailing the author’s use of the particular literary device and explaining how the quote is an example of the literary device. Primary Source Quote: “’For the love of God, Montresor!’” (Poe 625). Ideas for Interpretation: How is this quote an example of irony? (How is this quote an example of “literary device”?) Example from Poe: In this particular quote, Fortunato’s reference to God illustrates his knowledge of what will happen to Montresor in the afterlife as a result of Montresor’s murder of Fortunato.

45 Sentence Starters for IIB In this particular quote (character name)… Here (character name) illustrates (lit device) by… (Author name) provides an example of (lit device) … (Lit device) is presented in this portion of the story to (effect it has on story). It is here that (author name) uses (lit device) to…

46 Outline, Roman Numeral IID D. Ideas for Interpretation: This is a sentence or two explaining the critic’s point in writing the criticism. How does the author’s use of this literary device help/harm the story? What is his or her point in using this literary device? Try to explain why the author uses this particular literary device. What effect does it have on the story? What effect does it have on the reader? Secondary Source (Literary Criticism): “Fortunato literally and figuratively gets the last laugh in the tale because he knows what lies ahead for Montresor and himself in the next world” (Gruesser 1). Ideas for Interpretation: Key for success—identify the critic’s name in your interpretation Example from Poe: Here, Gruesser identifies the irony in Montresor’s plan for revenge, noting that Montresor is unsuccessful in achieving revenge. The irony greatly increases the effect of the plot on the reader, allowing the reader to better understand the unexpected outcome of the story’s resolution. TODAY’S MISSION: Complete II, III, and IV letters B and D ONLY. Check with me for a grade by the END of the period.

47 Sentence Starters for IID By using the author’s last name as a sentence starter, you are giving your sentence more strength, credibility, and believeabilty. (Author’s last name) believes, feels, thinks, notes, describes, states, explains, identifies, examines, presents… Example: Gruesser identifies the irony in Montresor’s plan for revenge, noting that Montresor is unsuccessful in achieving revenge.

48 The Light at the End of the Tunnel Conclusion Write/type paragraphs—put ideas into complete sentences Works Cited Evaluate the research process and the effort you put into the project

49 Grades Grades are now being loaded into the computer. Small point values for our checkpoints along the way; assignments out of 3,6,or 9 points Grade ENTIRE project when you turn it in You will be done working on project no later than Friday, April 20. ENTIRE project can be turned in as early as Wednesday, 4/18—10 bonus points for turning it in no later than Friday, April 20.

50 What’s Next? The screenplay to the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Screenplay was adapted into a movie, screenplay won an Academy Award

51 Outline, Roman Numeral V, Conclusion A. Summarize information in II, III, IV, V, and VI: How has author used the five literary devices to illustrate the theme? Should be 5-6 sentences in length; one sentence for each of your literary devices. Example from Poe: Poe’s creative use of irony allows for a different interpretation of the typical revenge plotline. In using allusion, Poe expects the reader to understand his references to other characters who have become victims of the revenge plot rather than victors.

52 Conclusion, continued B. Restate thesis in a new and unique way: Use new and different words to rewrite your thesis. Original Poe thesis: In “The Cask of Amontillado”, Edgar Allan Poe uses irony, allusion, and point of view in order to convey the theme of revenge. Restated thesis: One of Poe’s most famous short stories, “The Cask of Amontillado”, examines the theme of revenge using the literary devices of irony, allusion, and point of view.

53 Conclusion, continued… Concluding Statement: (1-2) sentences which wrap up your entire paper; Why is this story still so popular today? Or you can also consider how successful the story would be without these literary devices. Example from Poe: Poe’s expertise in using literary devices allows for the reader to better experience Montresor’s quest for revenge and his lack of success in doing so. Without the use of irony, allusion, and point of view, the reader would not fully understand Montresor’s character. By the end of the period: check Roman Numeral V Receive info on how to write first 2 paragraphs

54 Research Paper: Intro and 1st Body Paragraph Using the outline you created, begin writing your introduction and your first body paragraph. As you begin writing, avoid using the pronouns “you” and “your”. Use “someone”, “reader”, “a person”, “one”, “audience” instead. Reread your sentences for repetition—are you saying the same thing twice? Use the “Transitional Devices” handout to help you link your sentences and paragraphs together. Make sure your writing is appropriate for your audience and purpose. Evaluate your evidence. Make sure your quotes support the point you are trying to make. Be sure to include the ENTIRE quote as well as the citation (author last name 3). Save only the good pieces: Do all of your ideas relate back to the thesis? Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence that introduces your literary device. Then move on to your primary quote and interpretation, your secondary quote and interpretation, and finish with a concluding sentence or idea that transitions into your next paragraph. Each paragraph should have approximately 5-9 sentences.

55 Example paragraph: Poe Topic sentence: Poe is a master in the use of irony. Primary Source Quote: His skill can be seen in the following quote, “For the love of God, Montresor!” (Poe 625). Interpretation: Fortunato speaks these words just moments before Montresor places the final brick in the wall, thus condemning Fortunato to death. While some people may believe that these words are Fortunato’s pleas for release, they are really words foretelling Montresor’s fate. Transition: John Gruesser, in his article examining Montresor’s revenge plot, writes, Secondary Source Quote: “I would like to suggest that Fortunato literally and figuratively gets the last laugh in the tale because he knows what lies ahead for Montresor and himself in the next world. Significantly, Fortunato is the one who first alludes to what J. Gerald Kennedy calls Montresor's ‘theological’ guilt when he calls out, ‘For the love of God, Montresor,’ shortly before he is entombed” (1). Interpretation: Gruesser believes that Fortunato, even though dead, gets revenge on Montresor, knowing what is in store for Montresor in the afterlife. Closing Sentence/Transition: The popularity of “The Cask of Amontillado” proves that Poe is skilled in creating stories that contain irony, a literary device which serves as the basis for an entertaining story.

56 Rubric Examine the rubric before you turn in your project. Be sure you have met all the requirements. The rubric MUST be in your folder when you turn it in.

57 Student Self-Evaluation Checklist Complete the yellow sheet and turn it in with your research paper. 1.Restate your thesis. 2.Write a 3-5 sentence abstract summarizing your research. In other words what did you learn about your author’s use of literary devices? 3.Complete the checklist, # Sign the paper 5.List your comments about the research process—what would you do differently next time? DO NOT SKIP THIS STEP OR YOU WILL LOSE POINTS.

58 Reflecting on the Research Process In a separate document, please reflect on the challenges and successes you found during the research process. Refer to each of the following categories, but focus on those issues that were most relevant to you as you researched. Planning: Reflect on the process of focusing your research. What challenges did you encounter in developing a question or thesis statement? Gathering: Describe any problems or successes you had as you searched. Did any particular strategies work well or disappoint you? Which databases and search tools worked well? What were the major barriers to your search for resources? Organizing: How did you ensure that your information comprehensively addressed the question or thesis? How and why did you modify your original question or thesis? What strategies did you use to reorganize your information? Did these strategies lead you to connections, patterns, etc.? Documenting: Did any issues arise as you documented your sources? Presenting/Communicating: Were you proud of your product? Was it appropriate to the audience? How might you have improved it?

59 Reflecting on the Research Process, continued Writing Requirements: Typed response to ALL questions, at least 250 words in length (Tools, Word Count) Heading: (Your name, teacher name, course title, and date---entire heading double spaced---Date is in proper form: 13 March 2006); on the left hand side of the paper The writer has used correct font (Times New Roman), point size (12), black ink, & margins (1”). Entire response is double-spaced. Responses are written in complete sentences. All questions have been addressed. If the response goes on to two pages, please use a header to insert ONLY your last name and page number. The header should begin on page one and be right-justified. The header should be in either Times New Roman—size 12. Remember, a header automatically sets the information ½” from the top of the page. Paper is titled “Reflecting on the Research Process” and is centered. Title is not underlined, italicized, bold-faced or printed in all capital letters The writing shows evidence of proofreading (spell check was used), and usage & grammar errors are minimal.

60 What’s Happening on Wednesday, April 18: Media Center : Works Cited Turn in ENTIRE project either by Friday for (10) bonus points! You may still turn in project on Monday, April 23 rd for full credit, but will not receive any bonus points If you turn in your project on Tuesday, April 24 th, you will be docked one full letter grade.

61 Today’s work Continue to write your rough draft using your outline. You may continue to write your paragraphs on a sheet of paper. Checkpoint for completion: Intro paragraph (Roman Numeral I) and 1 st body paragraph (Roman Numeral II) Follow same format as 1 st body paragraph for body paragraphs 2 and 3 Continue to write your rough drafts for the rest of the paper By the end of the period TODAY, I need to see body paragraphs 2-3, if not MORE!!!!

62 Typing your FINAL paper: Setup MLA format (12 pt, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins, double space, heading in left hand corner—student name, teacher name, class name, date paper is due), title centered Student Name Mrs. Snyder English 2CP 20 April 2011 Title

63 Typing your FINAL paper: Setup continued Insert a header: “Edit” menu, “header/footer”, right justify your cursor, type your last name, hit the space bar, click the icon/picture of a piece of paper with # symbol on it. This will automatically insert your last name and the correct page number on all of your pages. Snyder 1

64 Typing your FINAL paper: paragraphs Use the list of transitional devices to help make your sentences and ideas flow better. You may NOT just type the quotations from your outline page. You MUST use an introduction or a transition to help explain your point.

65 Paper Due TODAY One side of your folder should be all finished papers: rubric with name on it, typed paper, works cited page, reflection and yellow evaluation The other side of your folder should be all other papers: outline, rough drafts, etc…


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