Presentation on theme: "National 4/5 Graphic Communication Layout techniques Design principles Design Elements DTP terms."— Presentation transcript:
National 4/5 Graphic Communication Layout techniques Design principles Design Elements DTP terms
DTP – Desktop Publishing Desktop publishing is the science of design techniques for a wide variety of presentations. Included in this are: Magazine pages Folding leaflets Posters Letterheads Business cards
DTP – Desktop Publishing There are some guidelines that should be followed when designing effective presentations. How you use these will effect how easy to read a presentation is or the impact that it has on the viewer. Some of these are: Alignment How to use line effectively Flash bars Using the rule of thirds Using accent colours
Alignment You can use alignment to create rhythm in a presentation. This is how your eye moves around a presentation to grasp the information from it. iPod LCD screen Jog dial Metal case You can see how both the text and the lines here are all aligned on the right hand side. This makes the details easier to read.
Using Line You can use line for many different effects. It can split a page up or highlight specific parts of a graphic. iPod LCD screen Jog dial Metal case The lines here are used to identify the various parts of the iPod the poster is highlighting. This helps to organise the details.
Flash bars You can use flash bars to give a drawing some depth. These are strips of colour that go behind an object. Because the graphic being presented appears in front of these bars, it makes the abject being presented appear to come forward. iPod
The Rule of Thirds This is a guide used by photographers when they take a photograph. Imagine a grid that splits a page up into 3 equal segments and place the main parts of the presentation on these grids lines. Some cameras have this function installed on them to assist with layout. Here is a picture of Edinburgh Castle. You can see how it has been split up into this rule of thirds grid to help the balance of the picture.
The Rule of Thirds In this picture the tree is placed on one of the vertical thirds while the bay and the person sit on the horizontal thirds.
Accent colours Accent colours are a colour used throughout a presentation to help the flow of it. A common mistake some people make is to use too many colours in their presentations. By using colours repeatedly throughout a poster, you can help to bring all the elements together to help with the flow or rhythm of the presentation.
The Design Principles The design principles are: Balance Contrast Alignment Proportion Rhythm White Space Proximity/unity
Balance Balance can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical. This is similar to thinking of the page as a set of scales. Heavier objects can be balanced by smaller objects positioned further from it or lighter objects balanced by darker objects (darker objects tend to seem heavier than light coloured ones).
Contrast Contrast is where some of the design elements are used as opposites for effect. This could be shape, text, colour, line or weight. A word in a contrasting font or colour makes it stand out.
Alignment This is how text is laid out in an article. Commonly this can be 4 things. When an image is used as part of a presentation text can be used to describe it. To help with the rhythm of a page it is advantageous to align this caption with the image. Left Aligned Centre Aligned JustifiedRight Aligned
Proportion Proportion is all about the relationship between elements on a presentation. This can be achieved through the effective use of grids and margins or by using large images to show what an article is about before a reader has to start with the text.
Rhythm Rhythm is used to create movement through a presentation. This can be achieved by repeating and varying the elements used.
White space This refers to areas on a page that are left blank. This can be used to help balance a presentation or to maintain the reader’s attention to the content of the presentation. It is a vitally important part of a presentation to prevent it from being too busy or cluttered.
Proximity/Unity This is how close different parts of a presentation are positioned in relation to one another. Where parts are positioned close to each other it can be used to show that they belong together, e.g. a heading and sub- heading that are kept close but maybe have a different font size or an image with its caption.
The Design Elements The design elements are: Line Mass/weight Shape Size Texture Colour
Line Lines can be used to order a presentation, create rhythm or to split up different parts. They are a simple yet effective way of helping to improve the layout of a presentation. You can use various line types and colour to help with this.
Mass/Weight Mass refers to the size or amount of space taken up by an element. The mass plus the shape, tend to give relationship with other elements. The various weights of different shapes can be used to emphasize type styles.
Shape There are three basic shapes used in presentations. Squares and rectangles surround us in life so tend to be trusted. They can be seen as boring but can be made more interesting by rotating them. Circles are used to show a number of different feelings. They are infinite shapes, i.e. they have no beginning or end point, they are protective and they can also suggest movement. Triangles tend to suggest movement. They can be used to support the idea of conflict in a presentation due to their sharp corners.
Size Size can be used in a number of ways. When designing a presentation you must consider the size of the paper used, how you use size to show the most important elements of the presentation and how you will attract peoples’ eyes to your presentation.
Texture Texture can be split up into 2 areas. One is how paper physically feels. Top quality paper has a feel about it that instinctively feels good. The other is how you can use patterns or images to imitate feelings.
Colour Using colour is probably the most important decision a DTP designer will make when designing their presentation.
Colour Yellow, orange, and red are considered warm colours and can give the feeling of aggression, excitement, and danger. These colours appear to advance from the page.
Colour Blue, green, and violet are considered to be cool colours and are calming. These colours appear to recede into the page.
Colour Brown, black, white and grey are neutral colours and can be used to maintain the reader’s attention on the more interesting parts of a presentation.
Planning a Presentation Before you can produce your final presentation you should plan different ideas for how it will look. This will enable you to explore various layout possibilities so that you can create the most effective possible layout. Creating new ideas is difficult so this process will help you.
Thumbnail Sketches Thumbnail sketches are smaller quick drawings that show how a layout will look. These should be produced fairly quickly but still show colour schemes, margins, columns, headers, footers, where text will be placed, different text sizes, different text styles and where images will be placed. Each of these details should be labelled on the thumbnail sketches. This annotation makes it obvious as to what text styles and layouts are used so that they can be replicated in a finished presentation quickly and easily.
Thumbnail Sketches As part of this process it is also beneficial to explore different fonts you want to use. Make sure that the font you choose is suited to the idea you want to convey in a presentation. You can make particular words stand out by using a different font or size for it. Do not use too many different fonts in a presentation. It will become difficult to read.
Using text Efficient, sans-serif fonts are more suited to modern, fashionable and electronic products. Serif fonts are suited to convey a traditional theme. Other specialist fonts can be used or designed to convey other feelings such as horror, excitement or passion. Serifs fonts have tails on the ends of letters. Sans-serifs fonts do not have tails on the ends of letters. Informal Fear Horror Handwriting Young Children
Desk Top Publishing terminology There are some DTP terms you need to know. These are: copy & paste cut & paste text box handles colour fill single and multi-page format alignment cropping text wrap flow text along a path extended text transparency drop shadow rotate paper sizing justification reverse
Copy & Paste When an image or frame is replicated somewhere else on the page. iPod
Cut & Paste When an image or frame is removed from one document or part of the page and moved somewhere else. iPod
Text Box A text box is a box into which text can be entered. It can be any shape you like. Text in here.
Handles These are the parts of a frame that can be dragged to resize or rotate it. These circles are the frame’s handles.
Colour Fill There are 3 different types of colour fill that can be used when producing a DTP document. Gradient Solid Pattern There is a wide variety pattern fills that can be used and each fill style can be used with a selection of different colours. GradientSolidPattern
Single & Multi-page format Presentations can be based on a page layout planned for one page or for a few pages. When producing double page layouts it is important to be able to see both pages together as you work on them.
Alignment There are 4 main types of alignment. Left Aligned Right Aligned Justified Centred Alignment should be used to help keep rhythm in a presentation. Where parts of text belong to each other or where text belongs to an image they can be aligned to let the reader know they go together. Left Aligned Centre Aligned JustifiedRight Aligned
Cropping When an image is cropped you can select the part of it that you want to keep. This is set by dragging a frame around the area or by hiding parts of the frame the original image is in, depending on the software you use.
Text Wrap This is the effect of text following the edge of an image.
Flow text along a path Text can be set to follow a line or shape.
Extended text This is a wider version of a standard font.
Transparency This is a setting which allows parts of a DTP document to be set to be see through. The amount of transparency used with this setting can be changed to suit the needs of the user. We can see through the violet rectangle to the iPod.
Drop Shadow A drop shadow can be added to an object to give it the feeling of depth. By adding the shadow it looks like it comes off the page.
Rotate This allows you to turn an image around a desired angle.
Paper sizing This relates to the size of the paper used for a presentation. The most common set of paper sizes in use are the ISO A sizes which tends to be halved from the largest size of A0 down to A8.
Justification Frames can be lined up with each other. Horizontally they can be left, right or centre aligned. Vertically they can be top, bottom or centre aligned. They can also be distributed evenly horizontally or vertically. Left aligned Centre aligned Right aligned Top aligned Bottom aligned Centre aligned Horizontal justification Vertical justification
Reverse This is the effect of having text written in the same colour of the background with the area surrounding the text with colour. It is a simple yet effective method of making text stand out without using too many colours in a presentation. iPod Reverse text
Features of Magazine Layouts The following terms are all features of a magazine layout. gutter caption header and footer. title heading margin bleed sub heading floating element column gutter folio image
Features of Magazine Layouts The following terms are all features of a magazine layout. gutter – the gap between columns caption – text accompanying an image header – detail at the top of the page footer – detail at the bottom of the page
Features of Magazine Layouts title – this is the name of a magazine cover. heading – a few words to describe the an article. Usually a larger font size than the rest of the presentation. margin - the gaps at the left and right hand sides of the presentation. bleed – an area of an image that encroaches into either of the left or right margins sub heading – text accompanying a title to give a brief description of an article.
Features of Magazine Layouts floating element – parts of an article, usually text, that does not fit into the column structure. column – area where the text is displayed. gutter – the space between the columns. folio – the page number. image – any drawing or photograph included in the presentation.
Features of Magazine Layouts Header Right margin Heading Left margin Image Floating element Reverse Footer Caption Column Gutter Sub-Heading Bleed Folio
Advantages of using DTP The introduction of DTP and computers has had a massive impact and influence of graphic communication activity on society and the environment. Computers have completely transformed design offices which can now be paperless Some of the equipment used is: graphics tablets e-mail digital cameras editing suites
Advantages of using DTP The time it takes to produce publications has been shortened with the increased ease of editing through the use of computer software. People can also create their own DTP items from calendars to cards at home. Some examples of what can be produced are shown over the next few slides.
Safe working practices with DTP DTP businesses must protect the welfare of their employees. Ergonomic factors have to be considered to look after a person’s physical well-being. Some items that must be used are: adjustable seating adjustable footstools wrist rests Offices must be suitably lit with non-glare lighting. Regular breaks must be taken from the computer screen to avoid headaches and eye strain. Other factors that have to be considered are tidy workspaces and arranging hardware and cables safely.