Presentation on theme: "5/9/2015 A 32-bit ALU with Sleep Mode for Leakage Power Reduction Manish Kulkarni Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Auburn University,"— Presentation transcript:
5/9/2015 A 32-bit ALU with Sleep Mode for Leakage Power Reduction Manish Kulkarni Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 email@example.com Low Power Design of Electronic Circuits ELEC 6270, Spring 2009
Objectives: 5/9/2015 2 Modify existing ALU circuit to incorporate Sleep mode in order to reduce leakage power Study the effect of Sleep transistor network on the ALU circuit in Active and in Sleep mode Design a Sleep transistor network for maximum Leakage Power savings for a given delay overhead Find a set of vectors which causes minimum leakage power in ALU during the sleep mode
Power Gating: Sleep V DD (a)Header(PMOS) Switches for power gating (b) Footer(NMOS) Switches for power gating (c) Both Header & Footer Switches for power gating 5/9/2015 3 David Chinnery, Kurt Keutzer, "Closing the Power Gap Between ASIC & Custom, Tools and Techniques for Low-Power Design", chapter 10, authored by Jerry Frenkil, co-author Srini Venkatraman, Springer 2007.
Circuit Diagram: Data 1 Data 2 Add / Sub Data Out 32 32 - bit ALU (Low V t ) Sleep Transistor Network (High V t ) VDD Sleep GND_V 5/9/2015 4
Design of Sleep Transistor: It is a tradeoff between Saving in Leakage power and Speed This method tries to Minimize Leakage power during sleep mode for a given delay penalty Anis, M., Shawki, A., Mahmoud,M., Elmasry, M., “ Dynamic And Leakage Power Reduction In MTCMOS Circuits Using An Automated Efficient Gate Clustering Technique”, Proc. of the 39th conference on Design Automation, June 2002, pp. 480-485 Delay of a Gate without Sleep transistor is given by Delay of a Gate with Sleep transistor is given by Where, α is Velocity Saturation Index (1< α < 2) α = 1.8 for 45nm 5/9/2015 5
Design of Sleep Transistor (Cont..): = 4774.4 ≈ 4800 This is obtained by simulating the ALU circuit and finding the Maximum current through GND The current flowing through Sleep transistor is expressed as Where, μ n = Electron mobility = 150 cm 2 /V.s at 90 o C C ox = 19.7 X 10 -7 F/m for 45nm V tL = 0.466 V, V tH = 0.6226 V and VDD = 1.1 V for 45nm The Sleep transistor size is then obtained as 5/9/2015 6 Allowing 5% overhead on delay
Circuit Diagram: Data 1 Data 2 Add / Sub Data Out 32 32 - bit ALU (Low V t ) Sleep Transistor Network (High V t ) VDD GND_V T1 T2T3T79T80 Sleep 5/9/2015 7
Experiment Setup : The 32-bit ALU circuit is tested for 200 random vectors of 65 bit each The vectors are applied with to the circuit in following modes 200 vectors with Sleep = 1 i.e. Active Mode 200 vectors with Sleep = 0 i.e. Sleep Mode 200 vectors with Sleep changing from 1 0 after 100 vectors to get Sleep time 200 vectors with Sleep changing from 0 1 after 100 vectors to get Wakeup time During Sleep mode with 200 vectors a ‘Minimum Leakage’ power consuming vector is identified 5/9/2015 8 Some of Results from this experiment have been shown in following slides.
Active Mode: Average Dynamic Power : -1.804 dBmW = 660.0 uW Average Leakage Power : - 14.683 dBmW = 34.01 uW 5/9/2015 9
Sleep Mode: Average Dynamic Power : -35.197 dBmW = 302.204 nW Average Leakage Power : - 36.174 dBmW = 241.32 nW 5/9/2015 10
Sleep Time: Time taken by the Sleep transistor network to bring circuit to sleep mode after the Sleep signal is asserted. Sleep time = 14nS 5/9/2015 11
Wakeup Time: Time taken by the Sleep transistor network to bring circuit to normal operation (active) mode after the Sleep signal is de-asserted. Wakeup time = 0.4nS 5/9/2015 12
Sleep Mode Power for Complete Vector Set: Min. Leakage Power = -38.948 dBmW = 0.1274 uW Observed when Input vectors 0X3FB1F6F7 & 0X84AA877B are applied. 5/9/2015 13 Minimum Leakage Power Vector @ 6.9 uS
Circuit Diagram (Modified): Data 1 Data 2 Add / Sub Data Out 32 32 - bit ALU (Low V t ) Sleep Transistor Network (High V t ) VDD GND_V T1 T2T3T79T80 Sleep 0X3FB1F6F7 0X84AA877B Sleep 5/9/2015 14
Active Sleep with changing input vectors 5/9/2015 15
Active Sleep with Min. Power Vector at input 5/9/2015 16 Power Consumption during sleep mode when vectors are varying at the input Power Consumption during sleep mode when constant vector is applied at the input
Normal ( uW) Sleep (nW) Power Saving (%) Sleep Mode with Min Leakage Input Vector Power Saving (%) Avg. Dynamic Power 660.0302.20499.95 %0 nW100 % Avg. Leakage Power 34.01241.3299.29 %127.4 nW99.61% Peak Power5040.51361.13199.79 %127.4 nW99.99 % Minimum Power 29.2549127.499.56 %127.4 nW99.56 % Summary of Results: Sleep Time 14 nS Wakeup Time 0.4 nS Area Overhead*1456 1536 CMOS devices ( 45.05%) 5/9/2015 17 * The area overhead can be reduced by reducing number of sleep transistors through clustering.
References: 5/9/2015 18 Michael Keating, David Flynn, Robert Aitken, Alan Gibbons, Kaijian Shi, “ Low Power Methodology Manual for System On Chip design” Springer 2008 Zhigang Hu, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, Viji Srinivasan, Victor Zyuban, Hans Jacobson, Pradip Bose, “Microarchitectural Techniques for Power Gating of Execution Units”,proc. Of ISLPED 2004, pp. 32-37 Bushnell, M., Yu, B., “A novel dynamic power cutoff technique(DPCT) for active leakage reduction in Deep Submicron CMOS circuits”, Proc. Of ISLPED october, 2006, pp. 214-219 Neil H.E. Weste, David Harris, “CMOS VLSI Design” Third Edition, Boston: Pearson, 2005 David Chinnery, Kurt Keutzer, "Closing the Power Gap Between ASIC & Custom, Tools and Techniques for Low-Power Design", chapter 10, authored by Jerry Frenkil, co-author Srini Venkatraman, Springer 2007. Anis, M., Shawki, A., Mahmoud,M., Elmasry, M., “ Dynamic And Leakage Power Reduction In MTCMOS Circuits Using An Automated Efficient Gate Clustering Technique”, Proc. of the 39th conference on Design Automation, June 2002, pp. 480-485
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