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Sustainability Evaluation of Community Managed Rural Water Supply Schemes: A Case Study V. K. Sinha Kapil Lall 26 th June, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainability Evaluation of Community Managed Rural Water Supply Schemes: A Case Study V. K. Sinha Kapil Lall 26 th June, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainability Evaluation of Community Managed Rural Water Supply Schemes: A Case Study V. K. Sinha Kapil Lall 26 th June, 2012

2 Here comes your footer Page 2 Presentation Structure  Background  Conceptual framework of sustainability  Sample for the study  Findings from the field  Likelihood of sustainability  Conclusion 2

3 Here comes your footer Page 3 Background  Massive investments in RWSS, yet level of service is far from satisfactory.  Since long sustainable delivery of RWSS has been a cause of concern for those of us who are involved in trying to improve RWSS service whether as donor/govt./NGO/Program Manager etc.  Sustainability is a key criteria for financing by external agencies.  Like human health, health of projects/programs needs to be periodically assessed by conducting comparative study on field data and envisaged outcomes preferably by an external agency. 3

4 Here comes your footer Page 4 Background  URWSSP is under implementation in the State of Uttarakhand.  The Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) was engaged by the State Government in 2011 for carrying out sustainability evaluation study in order to monitor the project from a sustainability perspective to get an idea about the adequacy of the project design & the quality of implementation of the project processes.  Built around sustainability issues and concerns of URWSSP.  It takes a hard look at our limited achievements, point outs areas where our approaches need to be improved and sets some challenges. 4

5 Here comes your footer Page 5 To improve the effectiveness of RWSS services through decentralization and increased role of PRIs & involvement of local communities in the Sector Wide Approach (SWAp). 5 Project Cost US $: 224 Mn Project Period Implementing Agencies UJN, UJS, PMU Project Area Entire Rural Area Target Habitation 8270 Target ODF 470 GPs Target CACMP 25% of NC/PC Integrated Delivery of Water Supply, Sanitation & CACMP URWSSP in Brief

6 Here comes your footer Page 6 Conceptual framework of sustainability: A Service is Sustainable when 6

7 Here comes your footer Page 7 THE SAMPLE FRAME AND SIZE 7 40% 21 34% %  These schemes had operated for 6 months or more than 6 months and were in the O&M Phase.  A total of 1529 users were covered during the study. Gravity 50 Pumping

8 Here comes your footer Page 8 Findings on Physical Condition 8  The sustainability of the sampled schemes was assessed by looking in to its physical, institutional and financial as well as the social condition that ensure its sustainability. (21 Indicators)  A large majority of sampled SWAp schemes are functioning satisfactorily, and providing improved as well as regular water supplies to users.

9 Here comes your footer Page 9 Findings on Physical Condition 9  The quality of civil works related to each of these schemes covered was exceptionally good and rigorous procurement and quality control procedures seem to have been followed at the time of the construction  The sufficiency of yield from the source and its regular and timely measurement has very important implications for sustainability. Therefore, much more focus on CACMP works should be taken up.  Regular water testing at the grass roots level (UWSSCs and Users) needs to be vigorously propogated.,

10 Here comes your footer Page 10 Findings on Physical Condition 10  Marked improvement has been reported in the use of household toilets, hygiene practices among users, and overall environmental conditions in the covered habitations.  The level of training on financial management and book-keeping, catchment area protection, as well as the preventive maintenance has been found to be satisfactory however, the training in these project components needs to be strengthened further to better assist UWSSCs for carrying out various O&M functions.

11 Here comes your footer Page 11 Findings on Institutional Condition 1 1  The UWSSCs have been duly formed as stipulated in all sampled schemes, and are functional in all except two cases. The composition of UWSSC members reveals sensitivity towards ‘inclusiveness’ and gender concerns.  Though the bye-laws of UWSSCs have been formulated and duly approved as stipulated, there is much to be desired in the effective functioning of Social Audit Committees.  The cohesion, and community participation has been remarkable in most cases.  There is a satisfactory level of community involvement in O&M functions, and this has been a major achievement in most schemes.  Adequate care of assets takes place in most schemes. However, this element requires greater attention as assets created get older and worn out.

12 Here comes your footer Page 12 Findings on Financial Condition 12  Users charges have been fixed in accordance to guidelines, and in many cases revised upwards.  The effectiveness of the tariff system and its enforcement is satisfactory. Incentives for timely payments or penalties for late payment should be introduced.  The average revenue exceeds average expenditure in most schemes, and thus the financial health of most schemes is satisfactory.  The status of payments by over 77 percent of sampled users is good and regular. It may be said that the current status of tariff payments is good, and the default rate manageable at the moment.  Greater attention needs to be paid regarding the book keeping and records. If need be refresher training should be organized for UWSSCs members.

13 Here comes your footer Page 13 Findings on Social Condition 13  The schemes have achieved a creditable degree of inclusiveness of the weaker and vulnerable sections through providing them with the required water supply.  The schemes have had a remarkable impact in significantly improving water availability in the covered habitations.  The appreciation and approval for the scheme among users is very high invoking greater participation, and involvement among users.  The vast majority of users have a very high sense of satisfaction, and appreciation regarding the management of the schemes.  They are also very positive in their responses regarding the quantity and quality of water being provided to them.

14 Here comes your footer Page 14 Findings on Social Condition 14  The schemes have effectively reduced the drudgery of water collection;  More than 60% of the users have reported that they save up to 3 hrs. or more each day for water collection Time Saving Due to Convenient Availability of Water

15 Here comes your footer Page 15 Findings on Social Condition 15  The schemes have also had a significant impact on the perceptions of users with regard to improved health and sanitation.  The overall user satisfaction related to the functioning of SWAp schemes is very high, and thus positively reinforces, as well as strengthens participation along with compliance. The resulting social condition is thus enabling, and contributes significantly to ensuring sustainability. Reduction in Water Borne Diseases

16 Here comes your footer Page 16 Initiatives for improvement 16  District level workshops of all stakeholders will be organized to give feedback to the GPs and UWSSCs on problems, issues & interventions planned at the village level;  Cross visits to sustainable villages will also be arranged.  Refresher training of UWSSC members will be provided especially in financial management and book keeping ;  Prizes and awards will be instituted for UWSSCs who address their issues and problems before subsequent sustainability monitoring exercise.  Micro-level interventions at the village level and Macro-level policy adjustments at District and State levels will be initiated on the basis of feedback;

17 Here comes your footer Page 17 Likelihood of sustainability 17 Bullet 1 Bullet 2 Bullet 3 Felt need Appropriate Technology Participation  Remote & inaccessible location of most habitations.  Demand for an improved service by the community.  Manifestation of the demand by initial community contribution & commitment for O&M.  Information on system options, as well as cost and technical implications of each system were made available to the community.  Technology options selected with the communities and adapted to the community’s capacities and needs.  Involvement of community’s from the very start of the project cycle.  Users in the driving seat.  Use of local language. Informed Choice Participation

18 Here comes your footer Page 18 Likelihood of sustainability 18 Bullet 1 Bullet 2 Bullet 3 LOW O & M COST Appropriate Technology Participation  Gravity based water supply schemes.  Personnel costs low as GPs have appointed local residents as caretakers.  Timely revision of tariff by GP/UWSS to keep pace with increasing O & M expenses ;  Cessation of Political Pricing;  Willingness to pay.  Technical Skills at local level.  Easy availability of spare parts.  Regular preventive maintenance. TARIFF O & M

19 Here comes your footer Page 19 Likelihood of sustainability 19 Bullet 1 Bullet 2 Bullet 3 Appropriate Technology Participation  Average revenue exceeds average expenditure in most schemes.  Financial health of most schemes satisfactory.  Current status of tariff payments is good.  Default rate manageable.  Legitimate and organized community structure  Legal status to UWSSC  Established management capacity of GPs/UWSSCs to sustain adequate services. Management Capacity Revenue VS Expense Post implementation support  UJS as back stopping agency for providing technical assistance in case of major breakdowns and natural calamities during post implementation period to PRIs.  Periodic refresher training for village level functionaries.

20 Here comes your footer Page 20 Conclusion 20  Sustainability starts at the planning phase.  Careful planning of O&M systems must already be completed during the planning and design phase because effective O & M is essential for sustainability.  An overall picture is emerging that communities are capable of managing their water supply systems but they need backup support.  Perhaps 3 – 4 years period is too short to prove sustainability conclusively.  Evaluation is learning: No solution is forever. “If anything can go wrong, it will” Murphy’s Law

21 Here comes your footer Page Thank you for your attention Contact Information: Kapil Lall e. mail: V K Sinha e. mail:


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