Presentation on theme: "Footer Area Canadian History 1201 Chapter 3: Canada in the First World War."— Presentation transcript:
Footer Area Canadian History 1201 Chapter 3: Canada in the First World War
Footer Area Canada in the First World War Topics: –How it started –Preparation –Technology –Europe –Other Fronts –At Home –French-English Relations –Women –Propaganda –Legacy
Footer Area 3.1: On the Eve Of War (p.64-68) The Alliance System –Nations formed alliances to keep any one country from becoming too powerful. –Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy formed the Triple Alliance. –Britain, France and Russia formed the Triple Entente.
Footer Area 3.1: On the Eve Of War (p.64-68) Assassination and War –World War One was sparked by conflicts in the Balkans –Bosnia and Herzegovina had been annexed by Austria- Hungary in 1908. The Slavic people there wanted independence. –Serbia, a nearby Slavic state, became a champion of the Slavic people; demanding Slavic independence. It would become a pawn in the war to come. Balkans
Footer Area 3.1: On the Eve Of War (p.64-68) Assassination and War –Russia supported the Serbian people, as it was a largely Slavic country. It also wanted to expand into Western Europe. –Austria-Hungary opposed Serbia. It wanted to expand towards the Mediterranean Sea. –On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Serb nationalist, shot Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
Footer Area 3.1: On the Eve Of War (p.64-68) The Declarations of War in 1914 –July 28: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia –July 29: Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary –August 1: Germany declares war on Russia –August 3: Germany declares war on France –August 4: Britain declares war on Germany –August 5: Canada declares war on Germany
Footer Area 3.1:On the Eve of War (p.64-68) Strategies of War –The Schlieffen Plan called for Germany to quickly move through neutral Belgium to attack France, while Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia. –It didn’t work; British troops moved into Belgium and with French help, stalled the German advance. Austria- Hungary also ran into stiff resistance from Serbia. –The war turned into a campaign of attrition, involving trench warfare.
Footer Area 3.2: Canada Preparing for War Valcartier –Canada had only a small regular army and a much larger militia when the war began. –When 25 000 men were called for, 32 000 signed up. –They trained in Valcartier, Quebec, in poor conditions, as the video we saw showed. –By October, 1914, the Canadian Expeditionary Force was ready and sailed for Britain.
Footer Area 3.2: Canada Preparing for War The Newfoundland Regiment –About 2000 men were sent overseas, about 7% of the population at the time. –Of that 2000, 350 died
Footer Area 3.2: Canada Preparing for War The Battle of Beaumont Hamel –July 1, 1916 marks a special day for Newfoundlanders. –On that date, at 9:00am, 801 men of the Newfoundland Regiment went over the trenches and into German machine gun fire. –684 casualties resulted from the 30- min battle, including 310 dead. Only 68 of the original 801 answered roll call the next morning
Footer Area John Shiwak (1899-1917) John Shiwak was an Inuk from Rigolet, Labrador. He spent his early life trapping, writing and drawing. He joined the Newfoundland Regiment in 1915 and became a top sniper, scout and observer. When he was killed, his loss was felt all through the Regiment; he was well thought-of by all.
Footer Area Tommy Ricketts Born on April 15, 1901 in Middle Arm, White Bay, Newfoundland, Ricketts enlisted aged 15 and 4 months into the 1st Bn, Royal Newfoundland Regiment during the First World War He Received the Victoria Cross for gallantry in battle
Footer Area 3.4: Canadians Fighting in Europe Most Canadian soldiers fought as part of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), a part of the British Army. They even had British officers commanding them. As Canadians began to distinguish themselves, they were used as ‘shock troops’ in difficult battles; they were that good. In 1917, Lieutenant-General Arthur Currie became the first Canadian in a command position.
Footer Area 3.4: Canadians Fighting in Europe 1915: Ypres (Flanders, Belgium) –Soldiers of the First Canadian Division held their position in spite of the first poison gas attack –More than 6000 died defending a gap in the trenches, through which the Germans tried to reach the English Channel
Footer Area 3.4: Canadians Fighting in Europe 1916: The Somme (Somme River, France) –An offensive to take the town of Courcelette bogged down in August –Canadians were called in to help, and captured Courcelette on September 15 –Over the next 2 months, the Canadians advanced a total of 10km, and suffered over 24 000 casualties. The Allies lost over 650 000 men; both sides with over 200 000 dead.
Footer Area 3.4: Canadians Fighting in Europe 1916: The Somme –"The Canadians," wrote Lloyd George, "played a part of such distinction that thenceforward they were marked out as storm troops; for the remainder of the war they were brought along to head the assault in one great battle after another. Whenever the Germans found the Canadian Corps coming into the line they prepared for the worst."
Over the Top: Canadians Charging on the Somme, France, October 1916. The Battle of the Somme typifies the tragic futility of trench warfare. For a stretch of a few square kilometres, Canadian troops lost over 8,000 dead and 16,000 wounded soldiers. The British and French suffered combined losses that numbered in the hundreds of thousands
Footer Area 3.4: Canadians Fighting in Europe April, 1917: Vimy Ridge (France) –The Canadian Corps fought for the first time as one unit here, and captured the ridge by directly following an artillery barrage –After four days of fighting, the Canadians captured all of their objectives, losing 10 602 men in the process
CThe Taking of Vimy Ridge, Easter Monday 1917, by Richard Jack. CCanada's victory at Vimy Ridge took on enormous symbolic importance, not only for the military, but also for the nation at large. The event may even have played a direct role in Canada's constitutional evolution by providing the cause of greater independence additional moral authority. Some seven days after the battle, Sir Robert Borden pushed through a resolution at the Imperial War Conference declaring Canada and the other dominions "autonomous nations of an Imperial Commonwealth."
Footer Area 3.4: Canadians Fighting in Europe After Vimy Ridge –Canadians were sent to a variety of trouble spots that other units had trouble with –At Passchendale (Belgium) on Oct 30, 1917, General Currie argued that muddy conditions would make the attack impossible. –He was overruled, the Canadians attacked and were successful - but lost 16 000 of their original 20 000 men in the process
Footer Area 3.4: Canadians Fighting in Europe 1918: ‘Canada’s 100 Days’ (Aug 4-Nov 11) –This coincided with the Allies final offensive of the war, which led to the defeat of the German Army. –46 000 Canadians died or were wounded during this period, in battles at such places as Amiens, Arras, Canal du Nord and Cambrai. –The innovative, rapid attack tactics used by the Canadians arguably influenced the German Blitzkrieg tactics of Word War II. –Canadians led Allied troops into Mons, Belgium on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918, the end of the war.
3.5: Canadians Serving on Other Fronts At Sea Battle of Jutland In the Air
3.6: Fighting the War at Home The Role of Government in Wartime -The War Measures Act (1914) gave the Government control over many aspects of life such as arrest and detainment and factory production. -Income Tax was introduced as a ‘temporary’ measure, as were other taxes on luxury items like coffee, tobacco, cars and gas.
3.6: Fighting the War at Home Feeding the Troops - Increased food production was a priority in Canada; teenagers and city women were recruited to help in harvesting crops. -See the ‘Goods Exported in …’ graph on page 86 for illustration.
3.6: Fighting the War at Home Arming the Troops Canada’s minerals were in great demand. The war also necessitated the development of Canadian industry. By war’s end, Canada was supplying 35% of Canadian & British ammunition, as well as other equipment and vehicles (see munitions graph on page 86). Total manufacturing production values rose from $71 million to $555 million.
3.6: Fighting the War at Home Enemies at Home The more than 1 million people of German or Austro-Hungarian descent in Canada in 1914 were treated poorly. They were shunned, jailed, fired, denied the right to vote or made to work on various projects. Note the the graph on page 87; why would immigration have dropped so sharply by 1915?
3.6: Fighting the War at Home Section Questions: page 88 # 1, 2, 5.a. (no debate…just give your views)
3.7: The War and French-English Relations; The Conscription Crisis, 1917 Question # 6, page 91
3.8 Women and the First World War Women served overseas in such positions as: Nurses, sometimes in field hospitals Ambulance drivers Workers in clubs & canteens Personnel in army offices Some lost their lives and some were decorated for bravery
3.8 Women and the First World War World War One forever changed the role of women in Canadian society
3.8 Women and the First World War Women’s biggest role was at home. They replaced men at home and at work, in such workplaces as: Factories Farms Volunteer activities (IODE, YWCA, Red Cross, …) For the first time, women were even heads of households
3.8 Women and the First World War War and the Suffrage Movement: Women got together at work and shared views Mothers, sisters, daughters & wives of soldiers got the right to vote in 1917 Most other were enfranchised at the end of WWI (see fig 3.8.e) At the end of the war, men expected women to go back to their traditional roles