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C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory Sensor-Based Interactions Kami Vaniea.

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Presentation on theme: "C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory Sensor-Based Interactions Kami Vaniea."— Presentation transcript:

1 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory Sensor-Based Interactions Kami Vaniea

2 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Outline Coping with Uncertainty Making Sense of Sensing Systems: Five Questions for Designers and Researchers Distributed Mediation of Ambiguous Context in Aware Environments

3 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Uncertainty State of knowledge in which one or more alternatives result in a set of possible specific outcomes, but where the probabilities of the outcomes are neither known nor meaningful.

4 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Uncertain Communication Sensors produce concrete data with uncertain or ambiguous interpretation Location Data (GPS) Temperature Computers can make bad decisions based on uncertain data Interrupting user Making poor decisions on user’s behalf Communicating wrong information

5 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Outline Coping with Uncertainty Making Sense of Sensing Systems: Five Questions for Designers and Researchers Distributed Mediation of Ambiguous Context in Aware Environments

6 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images HHI and HCI Human to Human Interaction (HHI) has been well studied by researchers How can we use some of the lessons about Human to Human communication to facilitate Human to Computer communication? Recognize that communication is a shared responsibility and requires management and repair

7 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Norman’s Seven Stages of Action Forming the goal Forming the intention Specifying an action Executing the action Perceiving the state of the world Interpreting the state of the world Evaluating the outcome Goal Execution Evaluation

8 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Five Issues in Communication Address: Directing communication to a system Attention: Establishing that the system is attending Action: Defining what is to be done with the system Alignment: Monitoring system response Accident: Avoiding or recovering from errors or misunderstandings

9 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Stages of Action vs. Conversation Issues SystemHuman Address Attention Action Alignment Accident

10 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Address: How do I address or of many possible devices? GUI Answers Keyboard Mouse Exposed Challenges Disambiguate signal-to-noise Disambiguate intended target system How to not address the system Possible Problems No response Unwanted response

11 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Attention: How do I know the system is ready and attending to my actions? GUI Answers Graphical feedback such as blinking cursors Exposed Challenges Giving feedback so the user knows it has the system’s attention Periphery feedback Possible Problems Wasted input if system not responding Unintended action Privacy and Security problems(?)

12 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Action: How do I effect a meaningful action, control its extent and possibly specify a target or targets of my action? GUI Answers Use standard GUI widgets, such as clicking and selecting text, to interact with the system Exposed Challenges Identifying and selecting possible actions Avoid unwanted selection Handling complex operations Possible Problems Limited operations available Failure to execute action Unintended action

13 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Alignment: How do I know the system is doing the right thing? GUI Answers Graphical feedback such as text appearing Auditory feedback Detectible new state Exposed Challenges Making system state perceivable Providing distinctive feedback on results and state Possible Problems Differentiation problems Inability to detect mistakes Unrecoverable problems

14 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Accident: How do I avoid mistakes? GUI Answers Control/guide in direct manipulation Stop, cancel, undo or delete Exposed Challenges Controlling or canceling system actions in progress Disambiguating what to undo in time Intervening when user makes obvious error Possible Problems Unintended action Inability to recover state

15 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Discussion UbiComp is still a new growing field Now is the time to create new methods of interaction between Humans and Machines

16 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Outline Coping with Uncertainty Making Sense of Sensing Systems: Five Questions for Designers and Researchers Distributed Mediation of Ambiguous Context in Aware Environments

17 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Ambiguous Context Data Many systems are based on the assumption that context data is unambiguous However, accurately determining context is a hard problem since the system isn’t in possession of all the facts Techniques such as AI algorithms can be applied but are not always accurate and require some training Sometimes it is necessary to ask the human in order to get unambiguous context data

18 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Architecture of the Extended Context Toolkit

19 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Disambiguating Sensor Data In an ubiquitous system where all the devices behave in a distributed manor disambiguating data is a shared problem

20 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Issues in Building Realistic Context-Aware Applications Distribution: Devices are in a distributed environment Storage: When should ambiguous data be stored? Multiple Subscription Types: Allow subscribers to opt-in/out and choose their type of subscription Pre-emption of Mediation: Prevent multiple simultaneous mediations Forced Mediation: Request mediation by other devices Feedback: Provide feedback to users about what the system thinks is happening

21 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Storage Should ambiguous data be stored? Should mediated data be stored? Both? How do we store ambiguous data since it is actually a graph of options Storing only unambiguous data is easier

22 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Subscribers Opt-in and Opt-out subscriptions allow subscribers to get only what they want and no more Those who get ambiguous data will have to mediate it, wait for another to mediate it or force mediation

23 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Pre-Emption of Mediation Mediation may occur simultaneously in several components If several components are mediating at once the first one to succeed pre-empts the others Does this mean the users will get multiple requests for mediation?

24 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Forced Mediation If a subscriber is unable or doesn’t want to mediate it can request another component to mediate It passes all ambiguous data to the other component which mediates if possible

25 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Feedback Provide feedback about what the system is doing and what its current state is Feedback can come in many forms from messages to speech

26 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory You can add your name and/or URL to the footer if you want. If your figures overlap the CUPS logo, then suppress the background images Examples In/Out Board Monitored when residents of a single building where present or not CybreMinder A situation aware reminder system which can use situational data to trigger reminders Word Predictor Makes typing words easier since it guesses context

27 C MU U sable P rivacy and S ecurity Laboratory Questions?


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