Presentation on theme: "Child Development 3-12 Part 2: Ages 6 to 9"— Presentation transcript:
1 Child Development 3-12 Part 2: Ages 6 to 9 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 12, :00-11:00 a.m.Debbie Richardson, Ph.D.Parenting Assistant Extension SpecialistHuman Development & Family ScienceOklahoma State University
2 Introduction Welcome Centra instructions Overview of in-service Resource materials
3 In-Service ObjectiveExtension Educators will be able to describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of 6 to 9 year-old children including physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development.MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
4 Domains of Development PhysicalCognitiveSocialEmotionalAges 5-7, skills in all domains are emergingAges 6-8, beginning to consolidate growth in all domainsLearning fundamental communication, math and problem- solving skillsExpanding social and community awarenessCombine in an integrated, holistic fashion to yield the growing whole child.
6 Growth Rate of physical growth is slower – occurs in spurts Often 3-6 growth spurts a year, each lasting about 8 weeksHeight: Generally 2” to 2.5”/yearWeight: Average 5-7 lbs./yearLoss of front primary teeth and emergence of permanent teeth about age 6-7 – replace about 4 teeth per yearEyes reach maturity in size and functionBrain growth slows - has almost reached adult sizeHead circumference increases about 1”Gradual growth of faceInfection-fighting lymphoid tissues (i.e., tonsils, adenoids)Developmental time frames should serve as a rough estimate rather than exact schedule of how development will unfold. However, failure to meet certain milestones may be indicative of possible developmental delays.Children should have regular well-child visits to ensure healthy developmentMay have growing pains
7 Individual Development Significant differences in appearance including height, weight and buildHeredity, nutrition, normal developmental variation and physical activity can all affect rate of growth & developmentAAP recommends well-child visits at 5, 6, 8, and 10 years
8 Motor Abilities & Skills Fine and large motor skillsMuscle coordination and control are still uneven and incompleteMuscular strength, hand-eye coordination, and stamina continue to progress rapidly allowing older children the ability to perform increasingly complex physical tasks (e.g., dance, sports, musical instruments)Skills/abilities influenced by growth, age, level of practice performing tasks, and individual child’s innate abilities
9 By age 5-6 Large motor Fine motor Stand on one foot for 10 seconds or longerHopSomersaultSwingSkipCopy geometric patterns and print some lettersDraw a person with a bodyUse fork, spoon, and sometimes table knife properlyAble to take care of basic hygiene (e.g., bathing, teeth, toliet)Refer to resource materials
10 By age 8-9 More graceful with movements and abilities Master eye-hand coordinationManipulative skills increaseDresses and grooms self completelyCan use tools more effectivelyGood printing and writing
11 Sleep Need about 9-11 hours per night Increasing demands from school, sports, other activitiesTV, computers, video games, caffeine can lead to difficulty falling asleep, nightmares and disruptionsSleep problems, disorders commonPoor/inadequate sleep can lead to mood swings, behavioral problems, cognitive problems that impact ability to learn in schoolConsistent sleep schedule and bedtime routineQuiet, private timeBedroom – dark, cool and quiet, no TV or computersAvoid caffeine
13 Cognitive Development - Piaget Preoperational Stage: 2-7 yrsConcrete Operational Stage: 7-12 yrsThought processes (operations) become organized and integrated with one another – allow logical thoughtAbility to classify objects in multiple ways, order objects in a logical sequenceMake rational judgments and perform operations about concrete or observable phenomenaAbstract thinking, yet still limited (no hypothetical or complex abstractions)This is the idea that some changes can be undone by reversing an earlier action. An example is the ball of clay that is rolled out into a snake piece of clay. Children at this stage understand that you can regain the ball of clay formation by rolling the piece of clay the other way. Children can even conceptualize the stage in their heads without having to see the action performed.
14 Cognitive Development - Piaget Better understanding of time and space, but not yet able to correctly place events in time sequenceSome reversibility - quantities moved can be restored (e.g., 3+4 = 7 and 7-4 = 3), understand changes in form of objectDeductive reasoning – ability to draw conclusions from given facts & infoRelativism – realize other’s thoughts & perspectives differ from own, can be wrong themselves, their own and other’s thoughts/feelings do not reflect realityPreviously had to manipulate physically to understand
15 The Evolving BrainContinued brain development underlies changes in cognitive skillsDifferent parts of the brain start to function more effectively as a coordinated systemNewly developed functions enable children to coordinate their thinking and their behaviors more effectivelyPre-frontal cortex is still immature – the part responsible for good judgment and control of impulses
16 Metacognition Process of thinking about thinking Automatic awareness of own knowledge and ability to understand, control, and manipulate their cognitive processesBegins to think about own behavior and see consequences for actionsCan think through actions and trace back events that happened to explain situations
17 ThinkingDramatic increase in real-world knowledge – expanding experiences outside homes, in schools and communitiesFantasy thinking gives way to logical thinking, distinguish between real & pretend, understand cause-and-effectOccasionally revert to pre-logical thinking patterns under stress - normal and results from a healthy, active imaginationIncrease in speed and capacity of memory processing allows handling more complex problems; can consider 2 or more aspects of a problem
18 ThinkingLearn to control attention and concentrate for longer periods of time - can obtain and use information more efficientlyPracticing and paying attention can improve remembering new thingsAbout age 6, begin to internalize strict moral rules of behavior (right or wrong) - Can understand and apply rules, make judgments, and want rules strictly followedAble to develop simple plans before acting, to achieve goals, more reliable without adult supervision
19 Attention and Learning Rarely can sit for longer than minutes for an activityAttention span gets longer with ageMay begin projects but finish few…more about exploringBest learn through activitiesCan talk through problems to solve them – requires more adult time and child’s sustained attention
20 Language Continually increasing vocabulary By age 8, can understand about 20,000 wordsSpeak with more precisionBegin to understand a word may have different meaningsBegin to read and write
21 By age 5-6 Recall parts of a story, tell longer stories Speak sentences of more than 5 wordsUse future tenseRecite address correctlyCount 10 or more objectsCorrectly name at least 4 colorsKnow about common items such as money, food, appliancesMost learn to read by age 6-7, but some as early as 4-5Simple math, addition & subtraction
22 By age 8-9 (3rd/4th grades)Can count backward and understand fractionsReading a paragraph extends beyond deciphering words to understanding contentWriting extends beyond correct spelling and penmanship to composing a sentence and start paragraphsEnjoy playing strategy gamesEnjoy word play (e.g., puns, insults) to exercise and show off growing cognitive & language abilitiesMostly think in present terms, but may think about the future
24 Psychosocial Development Erikson Initiative Vs. Guilt (Purpose)About 3 ½ to 6 yearsFeel free to act, create, express self creatively, and take risks.Industry Vs. Inferiority7-11 yearsBusily learn to be competent and productive or feel inferior and unable to do anything well. Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills.Evolved from psychoanalytic tradition expanding Freud’s theory.Focus on emotional development.Struggle between 2 emotional states – one positive, the other negative – push and pull the individual creating tension and posing unique interpersonal problems.Industry vs. Inferiority – Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.The healthy developing child learns to master the more formal skills of life:Relating with peers according to rulesProgressing from free play to play that may be elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamworkMastering academic skillsThe child who successfully resolves earlier crises is trusting, autonomous, and full of initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious. Sense of work and accomplishment.Immobilized by inferiority, isMistrusting child will doubt the future. Shame and guilt-filled child will experience defeat and inferiority.
25 Expanding Social World Spend more time outside their homes, in school, with peers, and in activities with other adults and without adults presentHave increased freedom and autonomy to explore the worldBecome less dependent on family and less self-centeredGreater physical and cognitive capacities make it possible to be more responsible for tasks at home and schoolVery energetic, like to make things, take risks, and are interested in accomplishing a taskNeed to develop a sense of mastery or competence by performing tasks without adult help
26 Expanding Social World Changes from fantasy play where imagination is key element to rules-based games with objective to win a competition regulated by rulesMore capable of playing a larger number of children for longer periods of time and sticking to rules of a gameBelonging and acceptance by peers becomes very important concern; no longer look to only adults for gratificationVery concerned with justice and fairnessDevelop and show social skills (i.e., empathy, compassion) by observing effect of their own and others’ behaviors toward othersStrict understanding about what is “right” and “wrong”. What is viewed as “fair” or “equal” is important. If standard is violated they can be verbally or physically aggressive in attempt to “get even”.
27 Emotions Usually able to articulate thoughts and feelings Although no less articulate than girls, many boys are not as expressive mainly due to socialization to be masculineBy age 9, most boys have successfully learned to repress feelings except anger – tend to be more physically oriented in self- expressionCommon fears include monsters, the dark, the unknown, school, failure, death, family problems, and rejection
28 6 Year-Olds Emotions up and down Thrives on approval Possessive with belongings; not yet able to distinguish “mine” & “yours”Responds negatively at first then cooperatesHas trouble compromisingDifficulty making choicesLikes to help with routinesPlays best with one friend rather than large groupNeeds to be reminded of instructionsMoney and rewards of greater interestCapable & independentLove-hateCan be much confusion and trouble between self and others then quiets down
29 7 Year-Olds Does not listen or take correction well Responds well to rewardsProcrastinates, easily distracted, short memory, tunes out; loses interest suddenlyVery competitive and does not know how to loseLies because of immaturityImmature sense of ownershipFights with wordsMore modest about bodyPlays easily with othersWants to be part of a groupMay be self-absorbed, moody,Becoming more aware of self and othersSensitive to others’ feelings; may feel others dislike them, are critical or poking funDislikes individual praiseTests limits with determination
30 8 Year-Olds More outgoing and self-confident More self-aware and self-judging; dislikes being teased about shortcomingsCan respond rapidly to instructionsPrefers hint/cue rather than a direct order; responds to glanceAsks for praise; wants time, attention, affection, approvalTells tales with some truthDramatic, impatient, demandingLikes to argue, compete, criticizeEasily disappointed if people don’t behave as wishedTalks a lot and gossipsCannot lose gracefullyInterested in & concerned about possessionsFriends of same sex importantSigns of growing independence – test growing knowledge with back talk and rebellionLearns through others’ mistakes
31 9 Year-Olds Great interest in fairness Group standards more important than parental standardsDemanding /critical of others and selfSelf-involved; may not hear when spoken to; may appear absent-minded or indifferentShows anger at parents but is loyal to family, friendsTakes criticism or commands better if carefully phrasedQuieter; more self-control; can spend more time aloneIncreasingly self-confident, independent, responsible, dependable, cooperativeLikes to pleaseLikes organized activities; likes to be chosenFriendships are more solidSometimes temperamentalMay resist/rebel authority and being told what to doInterests expanding beyond home and family
33 Peers & Friendships Develop ability to communicate Understand others’ points of viewEnable functioning as part of a groupLearn social rulesDevelop personality through interactionOpportunities for give and take, negotiation of differences, shared experiences, mutual trustNaturally curious about relationships between genders, but peer group usually consists of same-sex friendships and typically deny interest in opposite sexPositive peer relationships serve as protective factor for at –risk youth.Refer to fact sheet
34 Self-ConceptShift in self-esteem – continue to develop a sense of self and how perceived by othersMeasure own worth in a more objective way based on social acceptance and own sense of competenceParents who demonstrate close relationship, acceptance, define clear limits for activities and behaviors, and respect child’s stage of development and unique individuality help build high self-esteemHigher self-esteem → can better develop ways to resist risk factors for aggression, violence, and other negative behaviorsSelf-esteem tends to be strong and resilient during middle childhood.Children typically confident, adventurous, and certain of capabilities.Recognize they are being judged on ability to obtain socially valued goals (e.g., school, sports).Refer to Self-esteem fact sheet
35 Stress Growth & development School Peers Schedule Problems at home Pressure to conform to expectations from family, teachers, other adultsRefer to Stress fact sheet
36 Relationships with Parents Change as children’s competence and autonomy increaseParents need to share their control over children’s lives with the children themselvesParents need to change parenting strategies to incorporate:reasoningreinforcement of children’s understanding of right & wrongproblem-solving & prosocial skillsuse of humor
37 Discussion & Questions What added to your knowledge?What are some key messages for parents? For child care providers?How might you use this information?
38 Wrap-up Watch video clip and review resource materials In-service evaluationNext Session on Ages 10-12: Friday, Feb. 19, 9–11amSubmit questions or comments about this session or for next session.Post recording of session.