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Child Development 3-12 Part 2: Ages 6 to 9

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development 3-12 Part 2: Ages 6 to 9"— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development 3-12 Part 2: Ages 6 to 9
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 12, :00-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson, Ph.D. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University

2 Introduction Welcome Centra instructions Overview of in-service
Resource materials

3 In-Service Objective Extension Educators will be able to describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of 6 to 9 year-old children including physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development. MIDDLE CHILDHOOD

4 Domains of Development
Physical Cognitive Social Emotional Ages 5-7, skills in all domains are emerging Ages 6-8, beginning to consolidate growth in all domains Learning fundamental communication, math and problem- solving skills Expanding social and community awareness Combine in an integrated, holistic fashion to yield the growing whole child.

5 Physical Development Ages 6-9

6 Growth Rate of physical growth is slower – occurs in spurts
Often 3-6 growth spurts a year, each lasting about 8 weeks Height: Generally 2” to 2.5”/year Weight: Average 5-7 lbs./year Loss of front primary teeth and emergence of permanent teeth about age 6-7 – replace about 4 teeth per year Eyes reach maturity in size and function Brain growth slows - has almost reached adult size Head circumference increases about 1” Gradual growth of face Infection-fighting lymphoid tissues (i.e., tonsils, adenoids) Developmental time frames should serve as a rough estimate rather than exact schedule of how development will unfold. However, failure to meet certain milestones may be indicative of possible developmental delays. Children should have regular well-child visits to ensure healthy development May have growing pains

7 Individual Development
Significant differences in appearance including height, weight and build Heredity, nutrition, normal developmental variation and physical activity can all affect rate of growth & development AAP recommends well-child visits at 5, 6, 8, and 10 years

8 Motor Abilities & Skills
Fine and large motor skills Muscle coordination and control are still uneven and incomplete Muscular strength, hand-eye coordination, and stamina continue to progress rapidly allowing older children the ability to perform increasingly complex physical tasks (e.g., dance, sports, musical instruments) Skills/abilities influenced by growth, age, level of practice performing tasks, and individual child’s innate abilities

9 By age 5-6 Large motor Fine motor
Stand on one foot for 10 seconds or longer Hop Somersault Swing Skip Copy geometric patterns and print some letters Draw a person with a body Use fork, spoon, and sometimes table knife properly Able to take care of basic hygiene (e.g., bathing, teeth, toliet) Refer to resource materials

10 By age 8-9 More graceful with movements and abilities
Master eye-hand coordination Manipulative skills increase Dresses and grooms self completely Can use tools more effectively Good printing and writing

11 Sleep Need about 9-11 hours per night
Increasing demands from school, sports, other activities TV, computers, video games, caffeine can lead to difficulty falling asleep, nightmares and disruptions Sleep problems, disorders common Poor/inadequate sleep can lead to mood swings, behavioral problems, cognitive problems that impact ability to learn in school Consistent sleep schedule and bedtime routine Quiet, private time Bedroom – dark, cool and quiet, no TV or computers Avoid caffeine

12 Cognitive Development
Ages 6-9

13 Cognitive Development - Piaget
Preoperational Stage: 2-7 yrs Concrete Operational Stage: 7-12 yrs Thought processes (operations) become organized and integrated with one another – allow logical thought Ability to classify objects in multiple ways, order objects in a logical sequence Make rational judgments and perform operations about concrete or observable phenomena Abstract thinking, yet still limited (no hypothetical or complex abstractions) This is the idea that some changes can be undone by reversing an earlier action. An example is the ball of clay that is rolled out into a snake piece of clay. Children at this stage understand that you can regain the ball of clay formation by rolling the piece of clay the other way. Children can even conceptualize the stage in their heads without having to see the action performed.

14 Cognitive Development - Piaget
Better understanding of time and space, but not yet able to correctly place events in time sequence Some reversibility - quantities moved can be restored (e.g., 3+4 = 7 and 7-4 = 3), understand changes in form of object Deductive reasoning – ability to draw conclusions from given facts & info Relativism – realize other’s thoughts & perspectives differ from own, can be wrong themselves, their own and other’s thoughts/feelings do not reflect reality Previously had to manipulate physically to understand

15 The Evolving Brain Continued brain development underlies changes in cognitive skills Different parts of the brain start to function more effectively as a coordinated system Newly developed functions enable children to coordinate their thinking and their behaviors more effectively Pre-frontal cortex is still immature – the part responsible for good judgment and control of impulses

16 Metacognition Process of thinking about thinking
Automatic awareness of own knowledge and ability to understand, control, and manipulate their cognitive processes Begins to think about own behavior and see consequences for actions Can think through actions and trace back events that happened to explain situations

17 Thinking Dramatic increase in real-world knowledge – expanding experiences outside homes, in schools and communities Fantasy thinking gives way to logical thinking, distinguish between real & pretend, understand cause-and-effect Occasionally revert to pre-logical thinking patterns under stress - normal and results from a healthy, active imagination Increase in speed and capacity of memory processing allows handling more complex problems; can consider 2 or more aspects of a problem

18 Thinking Learn to control attention and concentrate for longer periods of time - can obtain and use information more efficiently Practicing and paying attention can improve remembering new things About age 6, begin to internalize strict moral rules of behavior (right or wrong) - Can understand and apply rules, make judgments, and want rules strictly followed Able to develop simple plans before acting, to achieve goals, more reliable without adult supervision

19 Attention and Learning
Rarely can sit for longer than minutes for an activity Attention span gets longer with age May begin projects but finish few…more about exploring Best learn through activities Can talk through problems to solve them – requires more adult time and child’s sustained attention

20 Language Continually increasing vocabulary
By age 8, can understand about 20,000 words Speak with more precision Begin to understand a word may have different meanings Begin to read and write

21 By age 5-6 Recall parts of a story, tell longer stories
Speak sentences of more than 5 words Use future tense Recite address correctly Count 10 or more objects Correctly name at least 4 colors Know about common items such as money, food, appliances Most learn to read by age 6-7, but some as early as 4-5 Simple math, addition & subtraction

22 By age 8-9 (3rd/4th grades) Can count backward and understand fractions Reading a paragraph extends beyond deciphering words to understanding content Writing extends beyond correct spelling and penmanship to composing a sentence and start paragraphs Enjoy playing strategy games Enjoy word play (e.g., puns, insults) to exercise and show off growing cognitive & language abilities Mostly think in present terms, but may think about the future

23 Social & Emotional Development
Ages 6-9

24 Psychosocial Development Erikson
Initiative Vs. Guilt (Purpose) About 3 ½ to 6 years Feel free to act, create, express self creatively, and take risks. Industry Vs. Inferiority 7-11 years Busily learn to be competent and productive or feel inferior and unable to do anything well. Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills. Evolved from psychoanalytic tradition expanding Freud’s theory. Focus on emotional development. Struggle between 2 emotional states – one positive, the other negative – push and pull the individual creating tension and posing unique interpersonal problems. Industry vs. Inferiority – Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. The healthy developing child learns to master the more formal skills of life: Relating with peers according to rules Progressing from free play to play that may be elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork Mastering academic skills The child who successfully resolves earlier crises is trusting, autonomous, and full of initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious. Sense of work and accomplishment. Immobilized by inferiority, is Mistrusting child will doubt the future. Shame and guilt-filled child will experience defeat and inferiority.

25 Expanding Social World
Spend more time outside their homes, in school, with peers, and in activities with other adults and without adults present Have increased freedom and autonomy to explore the world Become less dependent on family and less self-centered Greater physical and cognitive capacities make it possible to be more responsible for tasks at home and school Very energetic, like to make things, take risks, and are interested in accomplishing a task Need to develop a sense of mastery or competence by performing tasks without adult help

26 Expanding Social World
Changes from fantasy play where imagination is key element to rules-based games with objective to win a competition regulated by rules More capable of playing a larger number of children for longer periods of time and sticking to rules of a game Belonging and acceptance by peers becomes very important concern; no longer look to only adults for gratification Very concerned with justice and fairness Develop and show social skills (i.e., empathy, compassion) by observing effect of their own and others’ behaviors toward others Strict understanding about what is “right” and “wrong”. What is viewed as “fair” or “equal” is important. If standard is violated they can be verbally or physically aggressive in attempt to “get even”.

27 Emotions Usually able to articulate thoughts and feelings
Although no less articulate than girls, many boys are not as expressive mainly due to socialization to be masculine By age 9, most boys have successfully learned to repress feelings except anger – tend to be more physically oriented in self- expression Common fears include monsters, the dark, the unknown, school, failure, death, family problems, and rejection

28 6 Year-Olds Emotions up and down Thrives on approval
Possessive with belongings; not yet able to distinguish “mine” & “yours” Responds negatively at first then cooperates Has trouble compromising Difficulty making choices Likes to help with routines Plays best with one friend rather than large group Needs to be reminded of instructions Money and rewards of greater interest Capable & independent Love-hate Can be much confusion and trouble between self and others then quiets down

29 7 Year-Olds Does not listen or take correction well
Responds well to rewards Procrastinates, easily distracted, short memory, tunes out; loses interest suddenly Very competitive and does not know how to lose Lies because of immaturity Immature sense of ownership Fights with words More modest about body Plays easily with others Wants to be part of a group May be self-absorbed, moody, Becoming more aware of self and others Sensitive to others’ feelings; may feel others dislike them, are critical or poking fun Dislikes individual praise Tests limits with determination

30 8 Year-Olds More outgoing and self-confident
More self-aware and self-judging; dislikes being teased about shortcomings Can respond rapidly to instructions Prefers hint/cue rather than a direct order; responds to glance Asks for praise; wants time, attention, affection, approval Tells tales with some truth Dramatic, impatient, demanding Likes to argue, compete, criticize Easily disappointed if people don’t behave as wished Talks a lot and gossips Cannot lose gracefully Interested in & concerned about possessions Friends of same sex important Signs of growing independence – test growing knowledge with back talk and rebellion Learns through others’ mistakes

31 9 Year-Olds Great interest in fairness
Group standards more important than parental standards Demanding /critical of others and self Self-involved; may not hear when spoken to; may appear absent-minded or indifferent Shows anger at parents but is loyal to family, friends Takes criticism or commands better if carefully phrased Quieter; more self-control; can spend more time alone Increasingly self-confident, independent, responsible, dependable, cooperative Likes to please Likes organized activities; likes to be chosen Friendships are more solid Sometimes temperamental May resist/rebel authority and being told what to do Interests expanding beyond home and family

32 Related Issues Ages 6-9

33 Peers & Friendships Develop ability to communicate
Understand others’ points of view Enable functioning as part of a group Learn social rules Develop personality through interaction Opportunities for give and take, negotiation of differences, shared experiences, mutual trust Naturally curious about relationships between genders, but peer group usually consists of same-sex friendships and typically deny interest in opposite sex Positive peer relationships serve as protective factor for at –risk youth. Refer to fact sheet

34 Self-Concept Shift in self-esteem – continue to develop a sense of self and how perceived by others Measure own worth in a more objective way based on social acceptance and own sense of competence Parents who demonstrate close relationship, acceptance, define clear limits for activities and behaviors, and respect child’s stage of development and unique individuality help build high self-esteem Higher self-esteem → can better develop ways to resist risk factors for aggression, violence, and other negative behaviors Self-esteem tends to be strong and resilient during middle childhood. Children typically confident, adventurous, and certain of capabilities. Recognize they are being judged on ability to obtain socially valued goals (e.g., school, sports). Refer to Self-esteem fact sheet

35 Stress Growth & development School Peers Schedule Problems at home
Pressure to conform to expectations from family, teachers, other adults Refer to Stress fact sheet

36 Relationships with Parents
Change as children’s competence and autonomy increase Parents need to share their control over children’s lives with the children themselves Parents need to change parenting strategies to incorporate: reasoning reinforcement of children’s understanding of right & wrong problem-solving & prosocial skills use of humor

37 Discussion & Questions
What added to your knowledge? What are some key messages for parents? For child care providers? How might you use this information?

38 Wrap-up Watch video clip and review resource materials
In-service evaluation Next Session on Ages 10-12: Friday, Feb. 19, 9–11am Submit questions or comments about this session or for next session. Post recording of session.


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