3A student conducted an experiment to determine if listening to different types of music would affect pulse rate. She thought that pulse rate would change with different types of music. Each person participating in her experiment listened to seven different selections of music for 30 seconds each. The pulse rates were taken after each 30-second interval of music. Based on her experiment, the student concluded that a person's pulse rate changed when listening to different types of music. The component missing from this experiment is a: (1) prediction (2) hypothesis (3) control group (4) research plan
4An experiment was carried out to determine whether drinking caffeinated soda increases pulse rate. The pulse rates of two groups of people at rest were measured. Group A was then given caffeinated soda and group B was given caffeine-free soda. One hour after drinking the soda, the pulse rates were measured. The participants in the experiment were all the same age, and they were all given the same amount of soda.The dependent variable in this experiment is the: (1) type of soda given to each group (2) amount of soda given to each group (3) pulse rate of each group (4) age of participants in each group
5Which statement best describes a controlled experiment Which statement best describes a controlled experiment? (1) It eliminates the need for dependent variables. (2) It shows the effect of a dependent variable on an independent variable. (3) It avoids the use of variables. (4) It tests the effect of a single independent variable.
6The graph below represents the growth of bacteria cultured at three different temperatures over a period of 24 hours. Which statement concerning the rate of cell division in the bacteria culture is correct? (1) Cell division is most rapid at 37ºC between 6 and 8 hours after it began. (2) Cell division is most rapid at 25ºC between 20 and 24 hours after it began. (3) Cell division is most rapid at 18ºC between 4 and 8 hours after it began. (4) Cell division occurs at the same rate no matter what the temperature.
12The development of an experimental research plan should not include a: (1) list of safety precautions for the experiment(2) list of equipment needed for conducting the experiment(3) procedure for the use of technologies needed for the experiment(4) conclusion based on data expected to be collected in the experiment
14Introduction to Biology & Biological Organization
15Which diagram best represents the levels of organization in the human body?
16The chart below contains both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. Organisms that carry out only heterotrophic nutrition are found in: (1) row A, only(2) rows A and B (3) row B, only(4) rows A and CAowlcatsharkBmousecorndogCsquirrelbluebirdalga
20The diagram below represents an incomplete section of a DNA molecule The diagram below represents an incomplete section of a DNA molecule. The boxes represent unidentified bases.When the boxes are filled in, the total number of bases represented by the letter A (both inside and outside the boxes) will be(a) 1(b) 3(c) 2(d) 4
21The diagram below shows a normal gene sequence and three mutated sequences of a segment of DNA. Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the cause of each type of mutation?
30The diagram below represents the synthesis of a portion of a complex molecule in an organism. Which row in the chart could be used to identify the building blocks and product in the diagram?RowBuilding BlocksProduct(1)starch moleculesglucose(2)amino acid moleculespart of protein(3)sugar moleculesATP(4)DNA moleculespart of starch
35What normally happens immediately after fertilization in sexual reproduction? (1) specialization of cells to form a fetus from an egg (2) production of daughter cells having twice the number of chromosomes as the parent cell (3) production of daughter cells having half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell (4) division of cells resulting in the development of an embryo from a zygote
36The diagram below represents a plant cell in tap water as seen with a compound light microscope. Which diagram best represents the appearance of the cell after it has been placed in a 15% salt solution for two minutes?
37The diagram below shows a process that affects chromosomes during meiosis. This process can be used to explain: (1) why some offspring are genetically identical to their parents (2) the process of differentiation in offspring (3) why some offspring physically resemble their parents (4) the origin of new combinations of traits in offspring
38Which set of functions is directly controlled by the cell membrane? A. protein synthesis, respiration, digestion of food moleculesB. active transport, recognition of chemical messages, protectionC. enzyme production, elimination of large molecules, duplication of DNA codesD. release of ATP molecules, regulation of cell reproduction, food production
39Energy from organic molecules can be stored in ATP molecules as a direct result of the process of (1) cellular respiration (2) cellular reproduction (3) diffusion (4) digestion
40A. The cells are produced by mitosis and contain all the genetic information of the father. B. If one of these cells fertilizes an egg, the offspring will be identical to the father.C. Each of these cells contains only half the genetic information necessary for the formation of an offspring.D. An egg fertilized by one of these cells will develop into a female with the same characteristics as the mother
41The diagram shows the changes that occurred in a beaker after 30 minutes. The beaker contained water, food coloring, and a bag made from dialysis tubing membrane.When the colors yellow and blue are combined, they produce a green color. Which statement most likely describes the relative sizes of the yellow and blue food-coloring molecules in the diagram?(1) The yellow food-coloring molecules are small, while the blue food-coloring molecules are large.(2) The yellow food-coloring molecules are large, while the blue food-coloring molecules are small.(3) Both the yellow food-coloring molecules and the blue food-coloring molecules are large.(4) Both the yellow food-coloring molecules and the blue food-coloring molecules are small.
42The diagram below represents a yeast cell that is in the process of budding, a form of asexual reproduction.Which statement describes the outcome of this process?(1) The bud will develop into a zygote. (2) The two cells that result will each contain half the species number of chromosomes. (3) The two cells that result will have identical DNA. (4) The bud will start to divide by the process of meiotic cell division.
43After two hours, the color of the liquid in the beaker did not change After two hours, the color of the liquid in the beaker did not change. This shows that:(1) glucose moved from the artificial cell into the beaker(2) starch did not pass out of the artificial cell(3) starch was digested to glucose in the artificial cell(4) glucose molecules combined to produce starch in the artificial cell
441. Identify an organelle in cell A that is the site of autotrophic nutrition 2. Which statement best describes these cells?A. Cell B lacks vacuoles while cell A has them.B. DNA would not be found in either cell A or cell B.C. Both cell A and cell B use energy released from ATP.D. Both cell A and cell B produce antibiotics.
45The diagram below represents two cells, X and Y. Which statement is correct concerning the structure labeled A? (1) It aids in the removal of metabolic wastes in both cell X and cell Y. (2) It is involved in cell communication in cell X, but not in cell Y. (3) It prevents the absorption of CO2 in cell X and O2 in cell Y. (4) It represents the cell wall in cell X and the cell membrane in cell Y.
46Which nuclear process is represented below? (1) recombination (2) fertilization(3) replication(4) mutation
47The diagram below represents an event that occurs in the blood. Which statement best describes this event?Cell A is a white blood cell releasing antigens to destroy bacteria. (2) Cell A is a cancer cell produced by the immune system and it is helping to prevent disease. (3) Cell A is a white blood cell engulfing disease- causing organisms. (4) Cell A is protecting bacteria so they can reproduce without being destroyed by predators.
48Which statement is true of both mitosis and meiosis Which statement is true of both mitosis and meiosis? (1) Both are involved in asexual reproduction. (2) Both occur only in reproductive cells. (3) The number of chromosomes is reduced by half. (4) DNA replication occurs before the division of the nucleus.
51Humans require organ systems to carry out life processes Humans require organ systems to carry out life processes. Single-celled organisms do not have organ systems and yet they are able to carry out life processes. This is because:(1) human organ systems lack the organelles found in single-celled organisms(2) a human cell is more efficient than the cell of a single-celled organism(3) it is not necessary for single-celled organisms to maintain homeostasis(4) organelles present in single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to organ systems
58Which statement best describes how a vaccination can help protect the body against disease? (1) Vaccines directly kill the pathogen that causes the disease. (2) Vaccines act as a medicine that cures the disease. (3) Vaccines cause the production of specific molecules that will react with and destroy certain microbes. (4) Vaccines contain white blood cells that engulf harmful germs and prevent them from spreading throughout the body.
59Research has shown that certain body cells, known as stem cells, can develop into a variety of specialized cells. Various factors can cause stem cells to develop into different types of mature cells. These different types of mature cells result from(1) different antibodies and mitotic cell division(2) identical genetic codes and meiotic cell division(3) different environments of the cells and the functioning of different parts of the genetic code(4) similar steps in the development of the cells and a reduction in the number of chromosomes in each cell
61The diagram below represents the cloning of a carrot plant The diagram below represents the cloning of a carrot plant. Compared to each cell of the original carrot plant, each cell of the new plant will have (1) the same number of chromosomes and the same types of genes (2) the same number of chromosomes, but different types of genes (3) half the number of chromosomes and the same types of genes (4) half the number of chromosomes, but different types of genes
631. This technique used to analyze DNA directly results in (A) synthesizing large fragments of DNA (B) separating DNA fragments on the basis of size (C) producing genetically engineered DNA molecules (D) removing the larger DNA fragments from the samples2. What is this laboratory technique called?
64DNA samples were collected from four children DNA samples were collected from four children. The diagram below represents the results of a procedure that separated the DNA in each sample.Band X represents the:(1) largest fragment of DNA that traveled the fastest(2) smallest fragment of DNA that traveled the fastest(3) largest fragment of DNA that traveled the slowest(4) smallest fragment of DNA that traveled the slowest
65The diagram below represents a technique used in some molecular biology laboratories. This technique is a type of (1) chromatography (2) gel electrophoresis (3) direct harvesting (4) genetic engineering
67The flounder is a species of fish that can live in very cold water The flounder is a species of fish that can live in very cold water. The fish produces an "antifreeze" protein that prevents ice crystals from forming in its blood. The DNA for this protein has been identified.An enzyme is used to cut and remove this section of flounder DNA that is then spliced into the DNA of a strawberry plant. As a result, the plant can now produce a protein that makes it more resistant to the damaging effects of frost.This process is known as (1) sorting of genes (2) genetic engineering (3) recombination of chromosomes (4) mutation by deletion of genetic material
72The leaves of a plant are dotted with openings known as stomata The leaves of a plant are dotted with openings known as stomata. When open, stomata allow the plant to exchange gases and allow moisture to evaporate, helping to draw water from the roots up into the plant. These activities help the plant to(1) produce light energy (2) maintain homeostasis (3) decompose organic matter (4) synthesize minerals
73Which statement concerning this process is correct? (1) The process represented is respiration and the primary source of energy for the process is the Sun.(2) The process represented is photosynthesis and the primary source of energy for the process is the Sun.(3) This process converts energy in organic compounds into solar energy which is released into the atmosphere.(4) This process uses solar energy to convert oxygen into carbon dioxide.
74Which statement concerning this process is correct? (1) The process represented is respiration and the primary source of energy for the process is the Sun.(2) The process represented is photosynthesis and the primary source of energy for the process is the Sun.(3) This process converts energy in organic compounds into solar energy which is released into the atmosphere.(4) This process uses solar energy to convert oxygen into carbon dioxide.
77Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome in the body cells of humans. This extra chromosome occurs in a gamete as a result of (1) an error in the process of cloning (2) an error in meiotic cell division (3) a gene mutation (4) replication of a single chromosome during mitosis
80EcologyIn an ecosystem, the growth and survival of organisms are dependent on the availability of the energy from the Sun. This energy is available to organisms in the ecosystem because (1) producers have the ability to store energy from light in organic molecules (2) consumers have the ability to transfer chemical energy stored in bonds to plants (3) all organisms in a food web have the ability to use light energy (4) all organisms in a food web feed on autotrophs
81The diagram below represents the various stages of ecological succession in New York State. If the ecosystem is not altered, which stage would be the most stable? (1) grass (2) shrub (3) pine forest (4) hardwood forest
82Which statement is a possible explanation for the changes shown Which statement is a possible explanation for the changes shown? (1) Species A is better adapted to this environment. (2) Species A is a predator of species B. (3) Species B is better adapted to this environment. (4) Species B is a parasite that has benefited species A.
83What is an appropriate title for this diagram? (1) Energy Flow in a Community(2) Ecological Succession(3) Biological Evolution(4) A Food Chain
84On which day did the population represented in the graph below reach the carrying capacity of the ecosystem?(1) day 11(3) day 3 (2) day 8(4) day 5
85A volcanic eruption destroyed a forest, covering the soil with volcanic ash. For many years, only small plants could grow. Slowly, soil formed in which shrubs and trees could grow. These changes are an example of: (1) manipulation of genes (2) evolution of a species (3) ecological succession (4) equilibrium
86A food chain is represented below A food chain is represented below. This food chain contains: (1) 4 consumers and no producers (2) 1 predator, 1 parasite, and 2 producers (3) 2 carnivores and 2 herbivores (4) 2 predators, 1 herbivore, and 1 producer
87Why is a mushroom considered a heterotroph? (1) It manufactures its own food. (2) It divides by mitosis. (3) It transforms light energy into chemical energy. (4) It obtains nutrients from its environment.
88A particular species of shark normally reproduces sexually A particular species of shark normally reproduces sexually. In captivity, it was found that a female could also reproduce asexually. One negative result from asexual reproduction is(1) increased gene recombinations (2) increased number of males produced (3) decreased number of eggs used (4) decreased biodiversity within the species
89According to this diagram, the DNA of which pair of organisms would show the greatest similarity? (1) penguin and turtle (2) horse and donkey (3) snake and tuna (4) turtle and rabbit
90Question: Decomposers are necessary in an ecosystem because they (1) produce food for plants by the process of photosynthesis (2) provide energy for plants by the process of decay (3) can rapidly reproduce and evolve (4) make inorganic materials available to plants
92For centuries, certain animals have been crossed to produce offspring that have desirable qualities. Dogs have been mated to produce Labradors, beagles, and poodles. All of these dogs look and behave very differently from one another. This technique of producing organisms with specific qualities is known as(1) gene replication(2) random mutation (3) natural selection(4) selective breeding
93A species that lacks the variation necessary to adapt to a changing environment is more likely to (1) develop many mutated cells (2) become extinct over time (3) begin to reproduce sexually (4) develop resistance to diseases
95EVOLUTIONBeak structures differ between individuals of one species of bird. These differences most likely indicate(1) the presence of a variety of food sources(2) a reduced rate of reproduction(3) a large supply of one kind of food(4) an abundance of predators
96Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows the heads of four different species of Galapagos Islands finches.The four different types of beaks shown are most likely the result of (1) gene manipulation (2) natural selection (3) unchanging environmental conditions (4) patterns of behavior learned from parents
97Certain insects resemble the bark of the trees on which they live Certain insects resemble the bark of the trees on which they live. Which statement provides a possible biological explanation for this resemblance?(1) The insects needed camouflage so they developed protective coloration. (2) Natural selection played a role in the development of this protective coloration. (3) The lack of mutations resulted in the protective coloration. (4) The trees caused mutations in the insects that resulted in protective coloration.
98Which statement is a valid conclusion that can be drawn from the diagram? (1) Snails appeared on Earth before corals. (2) Sponges were the last new species to appear on Earth. (3) Earthworms and sea stars have a common ancestor. (4) Insects are more complex than mammals.
99Which statement is best supported by the theory of evolution? (1) Genetic alterations occur every time cell reproduction occurs. (2) The fossil record provides samples of every organism that ever lived. (3) Populations that have advantageous characteristics will increase in number. (4) Few organisms survive when the environment remains the same.
100Which two species would most likely be able to live in the same habitat without competing with each other for food? (1) A and C (2) B and C (3) B and D (4) C and E
101The diagram below shows the effect of spraying a pesticide on a population of insects over three generations.Which concept is represented in the diagram?(1) survival of the fittest(2) succession(3) dynamic equilibrium(4) extinction
102A limiting factor unique to a field planted with corn year after year is most likely: (1) temperature (2) sunlight (3) water (4) soil nutrients