Presentation on theme: "Digging Deeper into LDC Module Design: Helping Students Organize an Argumentative Essay."— Presentation transcript:
Digging Deeper into LDC Module Design: Helping Students Organize an Argumentative Essay
Check on Tech Audio Wizard Elluminate tools – Hand raise – Microphone – Smiley face – Checkmark – Chat box – Polling IU 13 LDC Webinar2
Virtual Meeting Norms Please… participate by using the microphone, answering poll questions, collaborating in breakout rooms and using the chat window. raise your hand to indicate that you’d like to use the microphone when it is time for questions. release the microphone when you are finished. use the door to indicate that you are away from your computer if you need to step out. IU 13 LDC Webinar3
Goals for This Afternoon… Introduce organizational structures for an argumentative essay. Deconstruct the organization of counterclaims in argumentative writing. IU 13 LDC Webinar4
Organizing an Argument Introduction Hook Background Claim Body Definition of Terms Reasons w/ Evidence Counterclaims Conclusion Connection to Hook Point to Broader Implications Call for Action
A Word about Authenticity IntroductionBodyConclusion Can be more than one paragraph Should catch the reader’s attention Should introduce the main focus of your essay Usually requires several paragraphs Should logically organize your main points, arguments, relevant evidence, and counterclaims Can be more than one paragraph Should end with a connection back to your attention- grabber/hook. Should leave the reader with a memorable thought, question, statistic, anecdote, or quotation.
Developing the Claim Should indicate writer’s position on the issue Should be debatable Should be narrow in scope Student examples: Therefore, zoos should be abolished. ~Gr. 7 Genetically modified foods are increasingly useful to the community and should continue to be in production and distribution. ~Gr. 11/12
Organizing the Introduction Hook and Background Establish Controversy Claim
“Rapid technological advancements and an influx of media in today's society have connected us in more ways than ever thought possible. Television, movies, newspapers, magazines, the internet, and other forms of the media all contribute to the highly connected global society. This intricate network of communication has vastly expanded our sphere of knowledge and understanding in the cultural context. Through television and the internet, we can access news and events in other countries minutes after they happen. Through pictures and stories, we can learn about the various cultures and practices all the way across the world. However, with this expanded access also come certain limitations. Often overlooked is the fact that the information has been filtered through numerous entities, only allowing us to see through the eyes of the creator, greatly limiting our perceptions of the world. Sometimes subtle and unintentional, other times blatantly obvious and highly structured, the influences of the media present society with a constructed reality, as each article, be it a news story, photograph, or even voice, is strategically selected and presented to convey a certain message. This process becomes destructive when it begins to shape our opinions, perceptions, and ideologies, especially concerning other cultures.” ~College Freshman The Introduction http://depts.washington.edu/owrc/Handouts/Claims%20Claims%20Claims.pdf
The Introduction It’s come to my attention, being I am a teenager myself, that adolescents are the vulnerable target of the flourishing energy drink industry market. With advertisements that specifically target teenagers, sponsorships with influential celebrities and little information on the ingredients – energy drinks appear to only have positive consequences. What worries me most is that this addicting ingredient- caffeine- can cause so much damage to your body. Caffeine is the most active ingredient in energy drinks. Dr. Ayala in her article “Energy drinks: Is it safe to Caffeinate kids?” explains that not only do these drinks already contain about 80 mg of caffeine per serving, but the drinks normally contain several servings which would certainly surpass the recommended 100 mg1 of caffeine for a teen per day. Therefore, it would be appropriate for government agencies to construct a law which bands minors to having access to these harmful drinks. Furthermore, it would be responsible for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to test and regulate ingredients of energy drinks. ~10 th Grade Student
Organizing the Body of an Argument Present one reason at a time o Explain and Support with Evidence Types of Evidence Relevant Statistics and Facts from Research Real Examples from Research Quotes from Experts and/or Highly-Respected Authorities Real Anecdotes from Research Integrate one or more counterclaims within the body of the essay
Example of Reason w/ Evidence Protecting innocent lives is just as important as self-defense. According to Tapper, protecting American citizens and citizens of allied countries has caused many wars. The sinking of the Lusitania, a British passenger ship carrying American soldiers, caused a stirring in the United States as it’s citizens cried for war. America declared war on Germany soon after and entered World War I. While under the brutal rule of Spain, Cuban citizens were dying in the streets because of the lack of food and water and the killings due to unfair laws. America went to war with Spain to protect and gain an ally with Cuba (Tapper). Even recently the United States declared war against Gaddafi to protect the innocent citizens of Libya. They were forced to live without food, water, or electricity and those who rebelled were killed (Obama’s Speech on Libya). If the United States had not helped, innocent lives could have been lost. ~7 th Grade Student
Organization of Counterclaims within the Essay Middle School Introduction & Claim Opposing View Rebuttal w/ Evidence Reasons and Evidence Conclusion High School Introduction & Claim Fairly Developed Opposing View Rebuttal w/ Evidence Reason w/ Evidence Fairly Developed Opposing View Rebuttal w/ Evidence Reason w/ Evidence Conclusion
Ways to Organize a Counterclaim Option A: Hamburger Style o Writer takes a stand consistent with his/her stance o Recognize the opposition o Counter the opposition Option B: Set Them Up; Knock Them Down o Writer begins by developing the counterclaim o Writer spends rest of paragraph refuting it Gallagher, K. (2011). Write like this. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Print.
Published Example of Counterclaim: Hamburger Style According to the voting guide, “Late budgets waste tax money and inflate the costs of building schools and roads.” Last year, for example “when the budget was late, road projects were shut down then restarted days later, costing taxpayers millions of dollars and further damaging California’s credit rating.” Some might argue this is the price we have to pay to ensure that a reasonable budget gets passed, but I disagree. As the voter’s guide states, “Real people suffer when legislators play games with the budget.” Taxpayers are punished, funding for schools is delayed, public safety is underfunded, and health care and services for seniors are used as bargaining chips. Prop 25 won’t make all of these issues disappear, but it will certainly encourage lawmakers to address them in a more timely manner. p. 184 Gallagher, K. (2011). Write like this. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Print.
Student Example of Counterclaim: Hamburger Style Energy drinks contain some very harmful ingredients including: taurine, ginseng, sweeteners and guarana.11 Companies purposely add these other stimulants to further enhance the already extreme effects of caffeine, and they also make large fallacies about what these added ingredients are capable of.12 For example, energy companies claim ginseng can “speed illness recovery; improves mental, physical, and sexual performance; controls blood glucose and lowers blood pressure”.13 In actuality there is absolutely no scientific evidence that exists to support any of the claims listed above. My question to you is: Are there effects that you are hiding from your buyers? Emma Hitt in her article “Energy Drinks Pose Serious Health Risks for Young People” suggest that we need to research and run more trials on these supplemental additives, because “The fact that there is no known safe does of any of those additives, or of caffeine, poses a risk”.14 ~10 th Grade Student
Published Example of Counterclaim: Set Them Up; Knock Them Down Unfortunately, some education advocates in New York, Los Angeles and other cities are claiming that a good personnel system can be based on ranking teachers according to their “value-added rating” — a measurement of their impact on students’ test scores — and publicizing the names and rankings online and in the media. But shaming poorly performing teachers doesn’t fix the problem because it doesn’t give them specific feedback. Value-added ratings are one important piece of a complete personnel system. But student test scores alone aren’t a sensitive enough measure to gauge effective teaching, nor are they diagnostic enough to identify areas of improvement. Teaching is multifaceted, complex work. A reliable evaluation system must incorporate other measures of effectiveness, like students’ feedback about their teachers and classroom observations by highly trained peer evaluators and principals. ~Bill Gates, Op-Ed Article New York Times
Student Example of Counterclaim: Set Them Up; Knock Them Down However, doubts are still being tossed around, proclaiming that China will only continue to pollute our air and water further and further into corruption. China is the largest coal-consuming country in the world, causing rapid pollution which can lead to severe headaches, nausea, and disorientation. Fortunately, China has come to realize this fact and in BBC News, it says, “China is building a coal plant a week, but is dedicated to having the clean energy sector take off. That is amazingly visionary and inspirational,” (“China Leads The World In Green Energy Investments,” 2011.) China plans to use only clean coal and in 2001, they have already launched the “Clean Coal” project that was apart of the 863 program. Also, China plans on using only efficient coal power plant. This has been a step up for China in helping our environment. ~High School Student
The Conclusion DO Ask a provocative question Leave with an interesting quotation Call for action Loop back to the anecdote in the introduction End with a warning Paint a strong image Express your hopes Answer the “So what?” question Point to broader implications DON’T Simply restate your thesis statement Introduce a brand new idea Focus on a minor point in the essay Use the following phrases: “In conclusion,” “In summary,” or “In closing” Add extra information that should have been in the body of the essay. Gallagher, K. (2011). Write like this. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Print.
Organizing an Argument for LDC Task #’s 7 and 8 “The point of the essay is to change things.” ~Edward Tufte, Educator
Organizing the Argumentative Problem-Solution Essay Part 1: Describe the problem. Define the problem. Who says it is a problem, and why do they say so? Try to use specific facts and figures in describing the problem. Part 2: Propose a solution. Describe your solution(s). Are your solutions practical? Are they obtainable? How so? Be very specific in outlining the steps of your solution. Part 3: Defend your proposal. Why will your ideas work? Anticipate what the opposition will say and counter their concerns. Part 4: Conclude. Remind the readers why this problem needs their attention. What action do you hope is prompted by the writing of this piece? Gallagher, K. (2011). Write like this. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Print.
What Instruction? Skills Cluster 4: Writing Process 1. Controlling ideaAbility to establish a controlling idea and consolidate information relevant to task. 2. PlanningAbility to develop a line of thought and text structure appropriate to an argumentative task. 3. DevelopmentAbility to construct an initial draft with an emerging line of thought and structure. 4. RevisionAbility to refine texts, including line of thought, language usage, and tone as appropriate to audience and purpose. 5. EditingAbility to proofread and format a piece to make it more effective. 6. CompletionAbility to submit final piece that meets expectations. 22IU 13 LDC Webinar
Argument Matters “If young people grow up learning to participate in logical, reasoned, evidence-based arguments, this will mean that they are given a voice. Our democracy is dependent on an educated, concerned citizenry, exercising the right to be heard.” ~Calkins, Ehrenworth, Lehman, 2012
Additional Resources Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab o Developing Your Claim: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/01/ o Organizing Your Argument: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/03/ o Logic in Argumentative Writing: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/1/
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