21 . Synthetic drugs are always a. fabricated in a lab setting b. organically grownc. man-made substancesfederally regulated2. K2 (or Spice) is a/ana. natural herb which is said to produce a marijuana-like highb. synthetic chemical which is said to produce a marijuana-like highc. additive used to stabilize chemical compoundsnon-addictive stimulant sold over-the-counter3. Which of these ingredients is NOT frequently used in oxidado?a. battery acidb. gasolinec. heroincocaine4. Which of these side effects is NOT commonly caused by krokodil?a. abnormally low blood pressureb. abnormally high body temperaturec. hallucinationsrotting skin5. What phrase is typically printed on bath salts packaging in an effort to mislead law enforcement?a. Not for human consumption.b. Handle with care.c. Check with your doctor before using this product.d. Sprinkle into a tub of warm water for a relaxing sensation.Name:ACTIVITY 1APRE/POST TEST
36. BZP is an ingredient in which of these emerging drugs of abuse? a. krokodilb. mollyc. kratomoxidado7. Which of these statements is false?a. Krokodil is a synthetic drug that kills users within three years.b. Oxidado is a chemical cocktail that kills users within one to two years.c. Being addicted to prescription opiates is fundamentally identicalto being addicted to heroin.Salvia is currently illegal in the United States.8. Which of these drugs are NOT synthetic?a. kratom and salviab. krokodil and Roxicodone°c. oxidado and salviaAll of these drugs are synthetic.9. Which of these drugs has been referred to as the equivalent of legalized heroin?a. Percocet°b. OxyContin°c. Dextromethorphan°Roxycodone°10. _________ is a hallucinogen that can cause a high that lasts up to three days.a. OxyContin°b. Oxidadoc. Pure Ecstasyd. Bromo-DragonflyACTIVITY 1BPRE/POST TEST
5MOLLY What Is MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)? "Ecstasy" and "Molly" are slang terms for MDMA, short for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, a name that's nearly as long as the all-night parties where MDMA is often used. That's why MDMA has been called a "club drug." It has effects similar to those of other stimulants, and it often makes the person feel like everyone is his or her friend, even when that's not the case.MDMA is man-made—it doesn't come from a plant like marijuana or tobacco does. Other chemicals or substances—such as caffeine, dextromethorphan (found in some cough syrups), amphetamines, PCP, or cocaine—are sometimes added to, or substituted for, MDMA in Ecstasy or Molly tablets. Makers of MDMA can add anything they want to the drug, so its purity is always in question.How Is MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) Used?Most people who abuse MDMA take a pill, tablet, or capsule. These pills can be different colors, and sometimes have cartoon-like images on them. Some people take more than one pill at a time, called "bumping."
6MOLLY (continues)What Are the Common Effects of MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)?For most people, a "hit" of MDMA lasts for 3 to 6 hours. Once the pill is swallowed, it takes only about 15 minutes for MDMA to enter the bloodstream and reach the brain. About 45 minutes later, the person experiences MDMA's "high." That's when the drug is at its peak level. People who use MDMA might feel very alert, or "hyper," at first. Some lose a sense of time and experience other changes in perception. Others experience negative effects right away. They may become anxious and agitated. Sweating or chills may occur, and people may feel faint or dizzy.MDMA can also cause muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. Forceful clenching of the teeth can occur. But it doesn't stop there. Even if a person takes only one pill, the side effects of MDMA—including feelings of sadness, anxiety, depression, and memory difficulties—can last for several days to a week (or longer in people who use MDMA regularly).What Are the Dangers of Using MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)?People who use MDMA can become dehydrated through vigorous activity in a hot environment. It may not seem like a big deal, but when MDMA interferes with the body's abilityto regulate its temperature, it can cause dangerous overheating, called hyperthermia. This, inturn, can lead to serious heart and kidney problems—or death. MDMA can be extremelydangerous in high doses or when multiple small doses are taken within a short time period tomaintain the high. High levels of the drug in the blood stream can increase the risk of seizuresand affect the heart's ability to maintain its normal rhythms.
7Butane Hash OilAlso known as amber, honey, wax, ear wax and by its initials BHO, butane hash oil is a highly concentrated form of the active ingredient in marijuana(tetrahydrocannabinol or THC). Use of BHO is known as "dabbing," because of the way the drug is ingested: Users place a small dab of the substance on a hot, metal surface, then inhale the resulting puff of smoke, according to SF Weekly.The high is nothing like regular marijuana: It's not uncommon for people to lose consciousness after inhaling BHO. "Things like this never happened until the popularization of hash oil in recent years," Dale Gieringer of NORML, a marijuana advocacy group, told SF Weekly. "The dangers are dire enough to merit a special warning."
8KrokodilFew street drugs have as wretched a reputation as desomorphine, a cheap derivative of codeine that's mixed with gasoline, oil, alcohol or paint thinner. Addicts shoot the concoction directly into their bodies with a hypodermic needle; the drug causes dark, scaly patches of dead and decaying skin. These gave rise to the street name "krokodil," or crocodile.While krokodil had previously been confined to Russia and former Soviet Bloc nations, a few cases of krokodil use have started appearing in the United States and other countries. Even those users who kick the habit are often severely disfigured for life, suffering serious scarring, bone damage, amputated limbs, speech impediments, poor motor skills and varying degrees of brain damage.
9Cheese- Heroin A highly addictive drug known as "cheese heroin" is a blend of black tarMexican heroin (called "black tar" because ofits color) and over-the-counter coldmedication, such as Tylenol PM. The result isa crumbly beige powder that may have been named for its resemblance to grated parmesan cheese.The drug costs only a couple of dollars a hit and children as young as 9, hooked on cheese heroin, have been rushed to hospitalemergency rooms for heroin withdrawal.What makes the drug so dangerous is a combination of several factors. It combines heroin, which is a highly addictive depressant, with other drugs that also slow the nervous system. In high dosages or in combination with other Depressants, such as Alcohol, the effect can be fatal.Also, the analgesic, acetaminophen can cause serious liver damage, and with high dosages or prolonged use, can be fatal all by itself. Diphenhydramine, the third drug in the combination, can cause Hallucinations, delirium and confusion.Repeated usage of Cheese heroin can quickly result in Addiction. The drug is also referred to as "starter heroin" since it can start a heroin addiction leading to other more expensive forms.Cheese heroin is an ugly new twist in adolescent drug use, that's targeting the youngest population. The important thing is to educate the kids early so they understand the reality before they make a mistake that could be fatal.
10SalviaWhat Is Salvia?Salvia (Salvia divinorum is an herb found in southern Mexico and Central and South America. The main ingredient in Salvia, salvinorin A, affects the brain by attaching to targets on nerve cells called kappa opioid receptors. These receptors are different from those activated by the more well-known opioids, such as heroin and morphine.Traditionally, people chew fresh Salvia leaves or drink their extracted juices. The dried leaves of salvia can also be smoked as a joint, inhaled through water pipes, or vaporized and inhaled. Although Salvia is not prohibited by Federal law, several States and countries have passed laws to regulate its use. The Drug Enforcement Agency has listed Salvia as a drug of concern and is considering classifying it as a Schedule I drug, like LSD or marijuana.What Are the Common Effects of Salvia?People who abuse Salvia generally experience hallucinations or a loss of contact withreality. The effects are intense but do not last long, appearing in less than 1 minute and lasting less than 30 minutes. They include changes in visual perception, mood and body sensations, emotional swings, and feelings of detachment. People also report a very different perception of reality and of oneself and have trouble interacting with their surroundings. The long-term effects of Salvia abuse have not been fully studied. Recent experiments in rodents show that salvia harms learning and memory.
11Why are they called bath salts? On Sept. 7, 2011, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) invoked its emergency scheduling authority" to control three synthetic stimulants -- mephedrone, MDPV, and methylone -- commonly called "bath salts" or "plant food" and marketed under such names as "Ivory Wave," "Purple Wave," Vanilla Sky," and "Bliss."The DEA plans to make possessing and selling these chemicals, or products that contain them, illegal in the United States. The emergency action will remain in effect for at least a year, during which time the government is expected to call for permanent control of the drugs.A new designer drug known as "bath salts" has become increasingly popular and increasingly scary. Poison centers across the U.S. have reported growing numbers of calls about the synthetic stimulant, and more and more states are banning the drug. But as of now, there is no federal law prohibiting their sale.Make no mistake: These are not bath salts like those you would use in your bathWhy are they called bath salts?"It's confusing. Is this what we put in our bathtubs, like Epsom salts? No. But by marketing them as bath salts and labeling them 'not for human consumption,' they have been able to avoid them Being specifically enumerated as illegal," Horowitz says.Are bath salts illegal?"You can find them in mini-marts and smoke shops sold as Ivory Wave, Bolivian Bath, and other names," Horowitz says. "The people who make these things have skirted the laws that make these types of things illegal. While several states have banned the sale of bath salts, ultimately it will have to be a federal law that labels these as a schedule 1 drug, which means it has no medicinal value but a high potential for abuse, and declare them illegal."
12Bath Salts (continues) What do you experience when you take bath salts?"Agitation, paranoia, hallucinations, chest pain, suicidality. It's a very scary stimulant that is out there. We get high blood pressure and increased pulse, but there's something more, something different that's causing these other extreme effects. But right now, there's no test to pick up this drug. The only way we know if someone has taken them is if they tell you they have.The clinical presentation is similar to a chemical found in other designer drugs, with agitation,psychosis, and stimulatory effects. Both of these agents should be of concern, as severe agitatedbehavior, like an amphetamine overdose, has occurred.A second concern is the ongoing suicidal tendencies in these patients, even after the stimulatoryeffects of the drugs have worn off. There have been a few highly publicized suicides a few daysafter their use," Horowitz says.Are bath salts addictive? How are they taken?"We don't know if they are addictive. We have not had enough long-term experience with it.Acute toxicity is the main problem. But many stimulants do cause a craving. The people whotake them are very creative. They snort it, shoot it, mix it with food and drink," Horowitz says.
13INHALANTS What Are Inhalants? A hand depressing an aerosol of a spray can, if you've ever come across a smelly marker, you've experienced an inhalant. They seem harmless, but they can actually be quite dangerous. Inhalants are chemical vapors that people inhaleon purpose to get "high." The vapors produce mind-altering, and sometimes disastrous, effects. These vapors are in a variety of products common in almost any home. Examples are some paints, glues, gasoline, and cleaning fluids. Many people do not thinkof these products as drugs because they were never meant to be used to get "high." But when they are intentionally inhaled to produce a "high," they can cause serious harm.Although inhalants differ in their effects, they generally fall into the following categories:Volatile Solvents, liquids that vaporize at room temperature, present in: Certain industrial or household products, such as paint thinner, nail polish remover, degreaser, dry-cleaning fluid, gasoline, and contact cement Some art or office supplies, such as correction fluid, felt-tip marker fluid, and electronic contact cleaner Aerosols, sprays that contain propellants and solvents, include:Spray paint, hair spray, deodorant spray, vegetable oil sprays, and fabric protector spray Gases, which may be in household or commercial products, or used as medical anesthetics, such as in: Butane lighters, propane tanks, whipped cream dispensers, and refrigerant gases Anesthesia, including ether, chloroform, halothane, and nitrous oxideHow Are Inhalants Used?People who abuse inhalants breathe in the vapors through their nose or mouth, usually in one of these ways: "Sniffing" or "snorting" fumes from containers, Spraying aerosols directly into the nose or mouth, Sniffing or inhaling fumes from substances sprayed or placed into a plastic or paper bag ("bagging"), "Huffing" from an inhalant-soaked rag stuffed in the mouth, Inhaling from balloons.Because the intoxication, or "high," lasts only a few minutes, people who abuseinhalants often try to make the feeling last longer by inhaling repeatedly over several hours.What Are the Common Effects of Inhalants?Initial Effects: The lungs absorb inhaled chemicals into the bloodstream very quickly, sendingthem throughout the brain and body. Within minutes of inhalation, users feel "high."INHALANTS
14INHALANTS (continues) The effects are similar to those produced by alcohol and may include slurred speech, lack of coordination, euphoria, and dizziness. The high usually lasts only a few minutes. With repeated inhalations, many users feel less inhibited and less in control. Some may feel drowsy for several hours and experience a lingering headache.Effects on the BrainInhalants often contain more than one chemical. Some chemicals leave the body quickly, but others stay for a long time and get absorbed by fatty tissues in the brain and central nervous system.One of these fatty tissues is a protective cover that surrounds many of the body's nerve fibers. It helps nerve fibers carry their messages to and from the brain. Damage to these tissues can slow down communication between nerve fibers.Inhalants also can damage brain cells by preventing them from receiving enough oxygen. The effects of this condition, also known as brain hypoxia, depend on the area of the brain affected. The hippocampus, for example, is responsible for memory, so someone who repeatedly abuses inhalants may lose the ability to learn new things or may have a hard time carrying on simple conversations. If the cerebral cortex is affected, the ability to solve complex problems and plan ahead will be compromised. And, if the cerebellum is affected, it can cause a person to move slowly or clumsily.Other Health EffectsRegular abuse of inhalants can cause serious harm to vital organs besides the brain. Inhalants can cause heart damage, liver failure, and muscle weakness. Certain inhalants can also cause the body to produce fewer blood cells, which can lead to a condition known as aplastic anemia (in which the bone marrow is unable to produce blood cells). Frequent long term use of certain inhalants can cause a permanent change or malfunction of peripheral nerves, called polyneuropathy.INHALANTS (continues)
15PRESCRIPTIONS DRUGS & OTC’s What Are the Common Misconceptions About Prescription Drug Abuse?There's a reason why prescription drugs are intended to be taken under a doctor's direction: If used improperly, they can be dangerous. Despite what many teens and adults think, abusing prescription drugs is not safer than abusing illicit drugs. As the facts will tell you, prescription drugs can have dangerous short- and long-term health consequences when used incorrectly or by someone other than for whom they were intended.Abusing prescription drugs can have negative short- and long-term health consequences.Stimulant abuse can cause paranoia, dangerously high body temperatures, and an irregular heartbeat, especially if stimulants are taken in large doses or in ways other than swallowing a pill. Abuse of opioids can cause drowsiness, nausea, constipation, and, depending on the amount taken, slowed breathing. Abusing depressants can cause slurred speech, shallowbreathing, fatigue, disorientation, lack of coordination, and seizures (upon withdrawal fromchronic abuse). Abuse of any of these types of medications may result in addiction. Abusing over-the-counter drugs that contain DXM—which usually involves taking doses much bigger than recommended for treating coughs and colds—can impair motor function (such as walking or sitting up); produce numbness, nausea, and vomiting; and increase heart rate and blood pressure.Aren't Prescription Drugs Safer Than Illegal Drugs, Such as Cocaine or Heroin?No. Many people think that abusing prescription drugs is safer than abusing illicit drugs like cocaine and heroin because the manufacturing of prescription drugs is regulated or because they are prescribed by doctors. These circumstances don't mean these drugs are safe for someone who was not prescribed them or when taken in ways other than as prescribed.Like illicit drugs, prescription drugs can have powerful effects in the brain and body. Opioid painkillers act on the same sites in the brain as heroin; prescription stimulants have effects in common with cocaine. And people sometimes take the medications in ways that can be very dangerous in both the short and long term (e.g., crushing pills and snorting or injecting the contents). Also, abusing prescription drugs is illegal—and that includes sharing prescriptions with friends.
16Prescription & OTC’s (continues) Are Over-the-Counter Drugs, Like Cough Medicine, Safer Than Prescription Drugs?Cough and cold medications are some of the most commonly abused over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Many contain an ingredient called dextromethorphan (DXM). However, to get the "high" craved by people who use drugs, large quantities are needed. At high doses, DXM causes effects similar to those of the drugs ketamine or PCP by affecting similar sites in the brain. Ketamine and PCP are considered "dissociative" drugs, which make people feel disconnected from their normal selves. Such drugs affect memory, feelings, and thoughts. DXM is similar, and its abuse can affect control over movement; cause numbness, nausea, and vomiting; and increase heart rate and blood pressure.When taken as directed, OTCs are safe and effective, but high doses can causeproblems. And, some OTC medications can produce dangerous health effects when taken with alcohol. It's important to understand these risks, read the bottle labels, and take OTC medications only as directed.
17Synthetic Marijuana SPICE/K2 What Is Spice?"Spice" is a mix of herbs that produce experiences similar tomarijuana (cannabis). Spice mixtures are marketed as"natural," legal alternatives to marijuana, but labeled"not for human consumption." They are sold under manynames—K2, fake weed, Yucatan Fire, Skunk, Moon Rocks, and others. They contain dried, shredded plant material along with manmade chemicals that cause mind-altering effects.For several years, Spice has been easy to purchase in head shops (stores that sell drug products) and gas stations and online. But, the chemicals used in Spice have a high potential for abuse and no medical benefit. So, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has made it against the law to sell, buy, or possess them. People who make Spice products try to avoid these legal restrictions by using different chemicals in their mixtures. The DEA continues to watch the situation and review the need to update the list of banned chemicals.
18Synthetic Marijuana SPICE/K2 (continues)How Does Spice Affect the Brain?Many Spice users have experiences similar to what they would experience if they used marijuana—relaxed feelings and changes in perception. In some cases, the effects are even stronger than those of marijuana. Some users report effects like extreme anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations.Spice is pretty new, so we haven't yet studied how it affects the brain. We do know that the chemicals found in Spice attach to the same nerve cell receptors as THC, the main mind altering component of marijuana. Some of the chemicals found in Spice, however, attach to those receptors more strongly, which could lead to a much stronger and more unpredictable effect. We don't know the chemical composition of many products sold as Spice. So, it's likely that some varieties also contain substances that could cause very different effects than the user might expect.What Are the Other Health Effects of Spice?People who abused Spice and were taken to Poison Control Centers, reportingsymptoms like fast heart rate, vomiting, agitation, confusion, and hallucinations. Spice can also raise blood pressure and cause less blood to flow to the heart. In a few cases, it has beenassociated with heart attacks. People who use Spice a lot may experience withdrawal andaddiction symptoms.We still do not know all the ways Spice may affect a person's health or how toxic it may be, but it is possible that there may be harmful heavy metal residues in Spice mixtures. We'll have to study the drug more to find out.
19Caffeine Buzz using excessive amounts of caffeine. The Adolescents are finding their high inusing excessive amounts of caffeine. TheAmerican Academy of Pediatrics warns thatwhen young bodies consume excessiveamounts of caffeine they may suffer seizures,stroke, or sudden death.In recent years, drinks that combinealcohol with caffeine, such as Four Loko, havebeen blamed for the deaths of teens and college students. But a new epidemic involves younger youth: drinking highly caffeinated energy drinks to catch a buzz. Even without alcohol, these drinks are dangerous to Kids' health. "Energy drinks are gateway," said Mike Gimbel, a national substance abuse educator. They drink it like its water. Nurses have kids Corning in with heart palpitations."