Any substance taken to enhance athletic performance. These substances include dietary supplements which may be legal or illegal.
Discerning Activity Levels Low intensity, long duration Ultra-marathons, physically demanding job, full day/multiple day hikes Medium intensity, medium duration Marathon & half marathons, High intensity, short duration Basketball, dancing, power lifting
Supplemental Caution Not regulated by the FDA May contain undeclared and/or unsafe ingredients Medicine Dietary Supplements Food
Categories Dangerous Consequences Not Dangerous, but Not Effective Possibly effective Largely unknown
Top Nutritional supplements Performance Creatine Arginine/Nitric Oxide Energy/ fat loss Caffeine Green Tea extract Carnitine Protein
Creatine Monohydrate Claims increase PCr stores Increases lean body mass Increases strength Improve exercise performance for high intensity workouts ○ Weight lifters, competitive basketball, sprinters Does it work? Yes, for a short amount of time How much is needed? ○ Initial dose 0.3g/kg body weight for first 7 days ○ Maintenance dose 0.03g/kg body weight for 4 to 6 weeks 180 lb person would supplement 24g/day initially then 2.5g/day maintenance Side effects Transient water retention, muscle cramping, strains, dehydration Chronic use may lead to liver and kidney problems Fade in for does it work
Nitric Oxide/ L-Arginine L-Arginine is an amino acid that serves as a nitric oxide precursor Vasodilation Increased muscle tissue turnover Stimulates growth hormone Claim Prolonged performance capabilities Decreased recovery times Does it work? Possibly Side effects Well tolerated by most people for up to 6 months at a time Stomach discomfort, ↑ risk of bleeding, worsening of sickle cell symptoms Insufficient evidence, leaning towards ineffective
Caffeine Claims: Caffeine can enhance physical and mental performance and also fat metabolism. Does it work? Yes Caffeine can enhance endurance sports such as cycling, running, and soccer. It has very little benefit for short term, high intensity exercise such as sprinting. How Much is Needed? 3-9 mg/kg of body weight, one hour prior to exercise. For 170 lb individual, this is about 230 – 700 mg caffeine. Side effects: restlessness, insomnia, anxiety, tremors, heart palpitations, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia tachycardia, thermo-irregulation. Category: Possibly Effective
Ephedra Claims: stimulate CNS, enhance energy, reduce fatigue; increase strength, power and speed; promote weight loss; improve body composition. Does it work? It does have thermogenic and lipolytic effects. However, its ergogenic advantages are highly debatable and the dangers associated with its immediate and prolonged use outweigh potential benefits. Side effects: increased heart rate and blood pressure, seizures, severe hypertension, arrhythmias, psychosis, stroke, myocardial injury, and intracranial hemorrhage. Overdose could lead to death by myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. Category: Dangerous
Carnitine Claims: decrease muscle pain and increase weight loss, endurance, cardiovascular function, and strength. Does it work? There is no consistent evidence that carnitine supplements can enhance exercise and physical performance in healthy subjects. (Your body makes enough carnitine to meet daily needs.) Recent studies have found some improvements in recovery from resistance exercise. How much is needed? 1-2 g/day for recovery Side effects: no serious side effects reported with doses from 0.5-4 g/d. Higher doses have been associated with nausea and diarrhea. Category: Possibly effective (for recovery)
Protein Claim: Optimizes muscular growth and repair Recommended intake: –0.8 g /kg for a normal activity individual. –1.2-1.7 g/kg for a strength training individual. –Max intake 2 g/kg (=.9g/lb) Side effects: > 2g/kg intake per day leads to dehydration, gout, GI upset, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity.
Top 3 Proteins Whey: BCAAs, fast-absorbing, shorter duration, good after intense workouts Casein: EAAs, slow-absorbing, longer duration, prevent muscle catabolism, steady flow of amino acids, take before bed. Soy: plant-based, build muscle mass and lean body tissue, antioxidant capabilities. – Does not lower testosterone and does not reduce lean body mass.
Hydration Requirements Always drink water before your workout. 17-20oz 2-3hours before exercise Less than 60 Minutes Water 60-90 minutes Water and electrolytes 90+ minutes Water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate ○ Energy drink ○ Water + foods ○ Other drinks
Good source of sugar Pre-portioned Good source of sugar Nutrient dense Inexpensive No funny aftertaste
1:1-3:1 ratio of Carbohydrate to protein Usually whey or casein only Artificial sweeteners Artificial colors ~$1.00 per serving 3:1 ratio of Carbohydrate to protein Whey and casein protein blend Calcium Vitamin D ~ $0.44 per serving