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By Kyle Grebert. My confidence before These are the kind of passages or books I would read before.

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Presentation on theme: "By Kyle Grebert. My confidence before These are the kind of passages or books I would read before."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Kyle Grebert

2 My confidence before These are the kind of passages or books I would read before.

3 Confidence before cont. Before, when I read passages I wouldn’t underline, highlight or do anything.

4 Confidence before cont. Before, sometimes I was too confident and I would read part of a book and say that I understood everything and that I didn’t need to read any more of it. I am normally a confident reader but sometimes if the passages had words that I didn’t know I would give up on the passage or book.

5 Our researchable question Which reading strategies help kids do better on tests?

6 Variables Manipulated variable: The reading strategies used Responding variable: The score on the kids test Controlled variable: Same passage, same test, same order in which we gave the test.

7 Our “schedule” and plan At the start the students would read a passage. Then they would do a test. Then they would read the same passage with a reading strategy, then do another similar test. Time Management 10 minutes to read passage and/or use strategies 10 minutes to take test Groups of students: Group 1: 2 students, 1 boy, 1 girl Strategy: Control Group 2: 2 students,1 boy, 1 girl Strategy: Underlining and/or circling Group 3: 2 students, 1 boy, 1 girl Strategy: taking notes Group 4: 2 boys Strategy: Discussion Group 5: 2 Girls Strategy: discussion

8 The Passage Caffeine, the stimulant in coffee, has been called “the most widely used psychoactive substance on Earth.” Snyder, Daly and Bruns have recently proposed that caffeine affect behavior by countering the activity in the human brain of a naturally occurring chemical called adenosine. Adenosine normally depresses neuron firing in many areas of the brain. It apparently does this by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry nerve impulses from one neuron to the next. Like many other agents that affect neuron firing, adenosine must first bind to specific receptors on neuronal membranes. There are at least two classes of these receptors, which have been designated A1 and A2. Snyder et al propose that caffeine, which is structurally similar to adenosine, is able to bind to both types of receptors, which prevents adenosine from attaching there and allows the neurons to fire more readily than they otherwise would.

9 The Passage cont. For many years, caffeine’s effects have been attributed to its inhibition of the production of phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the chemical called cyclic AMP. A number of neurotransmitters exert their effects by first increasing cyclic AMP concentrations in target neurons. Therefore, prolonged periods at the elevated concentrations, as might be brought about by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, could lead to a greater amount of neuron firing and, consequently, to behavioral stimulation. But Snyder et al point out that the caffeine concentrations needed to inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase in the brain are much higher than those that produce stimulation. Moreover, other compounds that block phosphodiesterase’s activity are not stimulants.. "PASSAGE A- “Caffeine”." N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr 2012..

10 Test number 1 1. Snyder, Daly and _____have recently proposed that caffeine affect behavior by countering the activity in the human brain of a naturally occurring chemical called adenosine. A. Burns B. Bruns C. Murphy D. Anderson 2.The stimulant in coffee is____ A. Sugar B. Hormones C. Caffeine D. Potassium 3. Which of the following affects neuron firing? A. Endorphins B. Carbon C. Dopamine D. Adenosine

11 Test number 1 cont. 4. Which of the following is a class of receptors? A. A1 B. F5 C. Neural Cord D. REM 5. Caffeine has been called _____ A. The most energetic substance on Earth. B. The most addictive substance on Earth C. The most effective method of staying awake. D. The most used energetic substance on Earth. 6. Explain what a phosphodiesterase is, what it does and why it is being discussed in the artice.

12 Answer Key Test 1 1. B 2. C 3. D 4. A 5. D 6. Varying Answers

13 Test number 2 1. Phosphodiesterase is a chemical that breaks down ____ A. Folic acid B. Caffeine C. Cyclic AMP D. A2 2. Snyder et al propose that caffeine ____ A. Causes depression. B. Is able to bind to both types of receptors A1 and A2. C. Lowers your IQ. D. Will become twice as expensive in 6 months. 3. Snyder, Daly and Bruns have recently proposed that caffeine ­____ A. Affects behavior by countering neurons. B. Affects behavior by countering blood-flow. C. Affects behavior by countering muscles in the brain. D. Affects behavior by countering adenosine.

14 Test number 2 cont. 4. How many classes of receptors on neuronal membranes? A. Exactly 2 B. None C. At least 2 D. Less than 2 5. Why is caffeine able to blind both receptors A1 and A2 A. It is structurally similar to adenosine. B. It is more energetic than adenosine. C. It is less potent than adenosine. D. It is able to travel faster than adenosine. 6. Summarize the article.

15 Answer Key Test 2 1. C 2. B 3. D 4. C 5. A 6. Varying Answers

16 Results Questions; Maddie Sheldon: Test #1: 4/9, Test #2: 2/9 Micah Green: Test#1: 7/9, Test #2: 6/9 Notes: Mercedes Goldberg: Test #1: 9/9, Test #2: 9/9 Matthew Sodd: Test#1: 7/9, Test #2: 6/9

17 Results cont. Underlining Katie Lambert: Test #1: 7/9, Test #2: 4/9 JW Naughton: Test#1: 6/9, Test #2: 5/9 Discussion Boys Bret Leupen: Test #1: 3/9, Test #2: 4/9 Colin Mcanich: Test#1: 4/9, Test #2: 4/9 Discussion Girls Rachel Kuntz: Test #1: 2/9, Test #2: 6/9 Megan Proffit: Test#1: 4/9, Test #2: 6/9

18 Conclusion We found that the best kind of reading strategy is partner reading. We also found the one that helps the most after partner reading is note-taking. One problem that might make the results less reliable was that some people said that the test 2 was harder than test 1.

19 My confidence during During this unit I realized that I was only using a few reading strategies. I was especially re-reading. I was also underlining a bit more and taking more notes. I also started reading out loud more in class and being less worried that people would laugh at me.

20 My confidence after Now I underline and use other reading strategies.

21 My confidence after I realized that during this unit I used re-reading a lot. Because of this knowledge I am now going to re-read passages I don’t understand. I will also underline words that I think will help me. I will also take notes.

22 Recommendations If you are a student in middle school you should try and partner read as much as you can. If you can’t partner read then you should take notes. If you are a middle school teacher you should try and make students partner read or take notes.

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