Presentation on theme: "A RGUMENTATIVE W RITING B ASED UPON THE S TEPHEN T OULMIN M ODEL F OR A RGUMENT Created By, Jennifer Duke October 26, 2012."— Presentation transcript:
A RGUMENTATIVE W RITING B ASED UPON THE S TEPHEN T OULMIN M ODEL F OR A RGUMENT Created By, Jennifer Duke October 26, 2012
People who write argumentative essays use logic. Logic is when a writer uses facts and evidence to support a claim rather than feelings or emotion. Argumentative Writing
If you are writing a persuasive paper, you use feelings and emotion. If you are writing an argument, you use facts and evidence.
W HAT ’ S A C LAIM ? A claim is the point that the arguer is trying to make. The claim is the statement that you are trying to get your reader to accept. The claim answers the question, “What’s your point?”
E XAMPLE O F A C LAIM Caffeine is harmful to your health.
W HAT ’ S A C OUNTER C LAIM ? A counter claim is a statement showing an opposing viewpoint.
E XAMPLE O F A C OUNTER C LAIM Caffeine boosts memory and improves concentration.
W HAT IS E VIDENCE ? Evidence is NOT opinion. Evidence is made up of proven facts that support the claim.
E XAMPLE O F A E VIDENCE Studies done by The American Psychological Association say that anxiety and sleep disorders are two of the effects of drinking caffeine.
W HAT IS A W ARRANT ? A warrant links the evidence to the claim. The warrant answers the question, “Why does the evidence mean that your claim is true?”
W HAT IS A W ARRANT ? Warrants are rules that people generally accept as true. The warrant is the “so what” in your writing.
E XAMPLE O F A W ARRANT Untreated anxiety and sleep disorders can cause a person to live an unhealthy life.
W HAT IS B ACKING ? Backing gives support to the warrant. Backing answers additional questions about the warrant.
E XAMPLE O F B ACKING Anxiety can cause a person to have a stroke, lack of concentration, or Insomnia. When a person does not get enough sleep, he or she may suffer negative consequences as the result of drowsy driving, forgetfulness, or weight gain.
W HAT ARE Q UALIFICATIONS ? Qualifications can refute opposing claims. A “qualifier” indicates the strength of the claim. Qualifiers include words such as 'most', 'usually', 'always' or 'sometimes'.
E XAMPLE O F A Q UALIFICATION Most people can form caffeine addictions without even trying. The effects of caffeine are not always serious, but it usually causes health problems in some people.
W HAT IS A R EBUTTAL ? A rebuttal is a counter- argument that can still be used against your claim despite how well- constructed your argument might be.
W HAT IS A R EBUTTAL ? A rebuttal is another argument in and of itself. A rebuttal has a claim, evidence, warrant, backing, and qualifications.
E XAMPLE O F A R EBUTTAL CLAIM: Caffeine is beneficial to your health. EVIDENCE: Caffeine increases energy. Caffeine lowers heart disease risk. Caffeine increases mental focus. Caffeine lowers the risk of Parkinson’s Disease. This rebuttal would also include a WARRANT, BACKING, and QUALIFICATIONS.
#1 What is a claim? A. Evidence that supports the warrant. B. A statement that is NOT supported in the paper. C. A statement in the paper that is supported by evidence, a warrant, backing, and qualifications.
#2 What is evidence? A. An opinion based upon a person’s feelings or emotions. B. Proven, logical facts that support the claim. C. A counter-argument. D. The words most, always, and usually.
#3 What are qualifiers? A. Opinions based upon a person’s feelings or emotions. B. Counter-arguments. C. Proven, logical facts that support the claim. D. The words most, always, and usually.
#3 What does a warrant do? A. Links the evidence to the claim. B. Links two words together. C. Justifies an estimation. D. Arrests people.
#4 What is the difference between argument and persuasion? A. An argument mostly uses feelings and emotion. B. Persuasion mostly uses logic, facts, and examples. C. Argument mostly uses logic, facts, and examples.
#5 What is NOT a rebuttal? A. A paper that is based mostly upon opinion and feelings. B. A paper that has a claim, evidence, warrant, backing, and qualifications. C. An opposing argument.