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Drugs & their Effects. 2 Slows down messages between brain and body Affects concentration and coordination Depressants Speeds up the messages between.

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Presentation on theme: "Drugs & their Effects. 2 Slows down messages between brain and body Affects concentration and coordination Depressants Speeds up the messages between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drugs & their Effects

2 2 Slows down messages between brain and body Affects concentration and coordination Depressants Speeds up the messages between brain and body More awake, energetic and confident Stimulants Distorts a person’s perception of reality May see and hear things that aren’t there Hallucinogens

3  Alcohol  Barbiturates  Solvents and inhalants, like petrol, glue, lighter fluids and paint thinners  Benzodiazepines  Cannabis  Opioids

4 Short-term effects:  Reduces inhibitions, increases feelings of well-being.  Reduced co-ordination, decision making and impaired vision.  Can increase depression and aggression.  Reduced concentration and reflexes.  Blurred vision and slurred speech.  Headache, nausea, vomiting, sleep.  Coma and death in high doses.

5 Long-term effects:  Liver, heart and brain damage.  Cancer  Sexual impotence and reduced fertility.  Concentration and short term memory problems.  Depression.  Family, work, relationship, legal and financial problems.  Stomach, skin and infection problems.

6 ‘Benzos’ Are prescribed by doctors to relieve stress and anxiety, relax muscles or promote sleep and are sometimes used to treat epilepsy. They are usually in tablet or capsule form. Examples include: Diazepam (Valium®), Oxazepam (Serepax®, Murelax®) Nitrazepam (Mogadon®)

7 Risks:  Dependance is a high risk even with short term use.  Tolerance occurs when your body gets used to taking a drug and higher doses are needed to experience the same effects.  Dependence the body may stop producing its own chemicals that help sleep and relaxation.  Overdose common symptoms are cold and clammy skin, ‘bluish’ coloured lips, slow breathing and heartbeat, snoring, gurgling, unconsciousness and coma. Benzodiazepines

8  Cannabis  Hashish  Hash oil

9 Acute effects:  Feelings of self-confidence, euphoria and relaxation.  Altered perceptions of time and space.  Heightened perceptions of taste, smell, touch and hearing.  Dissociation of ideas.  With concentration and memory difficulties.  In larger dose effects include, restlessness, anxiety, panic, confusion. Hallucinations may occur.

10 Chronic effects:  Respiratory deceases such as bronchitis and lung cancer.  Cannabis dependency  May trigger a psychosis such as schizophrenia in susceptible people.  Decrease memory retention.  Decrease motivation.

11  Opium  Morphine  Heroin  Codeine  Pethidine  Methadone

12 Drug effects:  Feelings of intense pleasure.  Pain relief.  Diminished hunger and sexual urges.  Lower blood pressure, pulse rate and breathing.  Pin pointed pupils.  With increased dosage: feelings of warmth, heaviness and sleepiness  Nausea and vomiting with large doses.

13 Adverse effects:  Acute effects: Respiratory failure, decreased body temperature, irregular heartbeat. Death can occur.  Chronic effects: Addiction, menstrual irregularity, constipation, impotence and infertility.  The additives used to dilute heroin can cause, collapsed veins, tetanus, abscesses, organ damage and endocarditis.

14  Amphetamines  Caffeine  Cocaine  Tobacco  Ecstasy  Ephedrine

15 Drug effects:  Low doses: Sense of well-being with enhanced self- awareness, increased self-confidence, increased visual awareness, increased alertness, increased concentration, hyperactivity, increased energy, talkative, irritability, reduced appetite, dilated pupils, increased heart rate and raised blood pressure.  High doses: Experience of distorted and gross alterations in body image. Amphetamines can be swallowed, injected, smoked or inhaled (snorted).

16 Adverse effects:  Acute effects: High doses can cause paleness, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, irregular heartbeat, stomach cramps, loss of co-ordination and dehydration.  Chronic effects: Chronic fatigue and exhaustion, psychological dependence and tolerance, paranoid psychosis, bizarre violent behaviour, malnutrition, depression. The effects of amphetamines can last from four to eight hours. Sometimes a person may experience a hangover effect that can last up to three days.

17 Drug effects:  Improved performance with low doses, increased confidence, increased energy, exhilaration, enhanced physical and mental well-being, increased respiratory rate, increased body temperature, enlarged pupils, cardiac arrhythmias, decreased appetite and insomnia.

18 Adverse effects (high doses):  Acute effects: Loss of co-ordination, tremors, dizziness, severe agitation, confusion, paranoid symptoms, nausea and vomiting, weak and rapid pulse, anxiety reaction, cold sweat and pallor.  Chronic effects: Heightened reflexes, loss of appetite, insomnia, chest pain, heart attaches, cocaine psychosis, violent and aggressive behaviour, decreased libido/impotence, and hallucinations.

19 Drug effects:  Similar to amphetamines although it has been reported that ecstasy produces a more positive mood and sense of intimacy.  Ecstasy is a derivative of amphetamines but also has hallucinogenic properties in its side effects and residual effects.

20  Adverse effects:  Acute: Jaw clenching, teeth grinding, interference in concentration and ability to study, and dehydration. Hangover effects such as drowsiness, depression and painful jaw muscles.  Chronic: The chronic, long term effects are uncertain due to the lack of research results available. However, it is acknowledged that neurotoxicity, memory and cognition problems and depression may occur.

21 Risks: Moderate consumption (for example, up to 4 cups of coffee a day) of caffeine is unlikely to cause any long-term damage. Heavier use of caffeine can have some serious effects including: osteoporosis, high blood pressure and heart disease, heartburn, ulcers, severe insomnia, infertility, anxiety, depression. Pregnant women who consume high amounts of caffeine have increased risk of miscarriage, difficult birth and delivery of low- weight babies. Coffee

22 Taking caffeine with other drugs Combining stimulant drugs (like caffeine) with alcohol places the body under great stress and can mask some of the effects of alcohol. For example, they will still be affected by the alcohol but may not feel as relaxed or sleepy. They may feel more confident, take more risks and increase the chances of experiencing alcohol-related harm such as drinking too much or being injured in a fight or accident. Coffee

23  Magic mushrooms  LSD  Mescaline

24 Drug effects:  Short-term: Euphoria, auditory and visual hallucinations, distorted sense of time, space and body image, nausea and dizziness, poor co-ordination, increased body temperature and sweating, paranoia.  Long-term: Panic attacks, depression, anxiety and paranoid delusions.

25 Drug effects:  Increased pulse and blood pressure.  Dilated pupils.  Fever.  Intense perceptual distortion.  Auditory and visual hallucinations  Affective changes.  LSD effects occur 30 to 90 minutes after administration and lasts 8 to 12 hours.

26 Adverse effects:  Acute: Alterations in mood and perceptions in low doses. In high doses, chills, nausea, anxiety, feelings of terror and depression, acute paranoia and panic.  Chronic: psychosis, flashbacks (lasting from 1 second to 5 years). There are other post-hallucinogen perceptual disorders that include false fleeting perceptions in the peripheral visual field and colour flashes.

27 For more information:

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