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D5 Stimulants Physiological effects Amphetamine and adrenaline (epinephrine) Short- and longterm effects of nicotine Effects of caffeine.

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Presentation on theme: "D5 Stimulants Physiological effects Amphetamine and adrenaline (epinephrine) Short- and longterm effects of nicotine Effects of caffeine."— Presentation transcript:

1 D5 Stimulants Physiological effects Amphetamine and adrenaline (epinephrine) Short- and longterm effects of nicotine Effects of caffeine

2 Physiological effects Stimulants are chemical substances that enhance the activity of the brain and the central nervous system They cause increased alertness and wakefulness. In many cases they also act to decrease appetite.

3 Sympathomimetic drugs Chemical substances that mimic the effects of the hormone adrenalin (epinephrine) Generally they cause constriction of the arteries and increase metabolism Structurally similar to phenylethylamine adrenalineamphetaminephenylethylamine

4 Amphetamine derivatives Speed Ecstacy

5 Amphetamine Synthesised from ephedrine Initially used to treat narcolepsy Issued to airmen in World War II- Wakey- Wakey-pills Anti-depressants and slimming pills Regular use can lead to tolerance and dependance Short-term effects- increase in heart rate and rate of breathing, dilatation of pupils Long-term effects- weight loss, constipation and emotional instability Ephedra plant

6 6 Nicotine Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) It constitutes approximately 0.6– 3.0% of dry weight of tobacco

7 Alkaloids Nitrogen-containing compounds found in plants with heterocyclic rings and a tertiary amine group CocainNicotine Caffeine Morphine Ergometrin, cf LSD

8 8 Nicotine - Short Term Sympathomimetic Increases concentration and relieves tension Increases heart rate and blood pressure Reduction in urine output

9 Nicotine – Long Term Highly addictive Increased risk of heart disease and coronary thrombosis Increased stomach acid and risk of peptic ulcers Chronic lung disease Increased risk of cancer (lung, throat, mouth) 9

10 10 Cessation of smoking difficult Cravings Nausea, weight gain, insomnia, irritability, and depression Nicotine - Addiction and Withdrawal

11 Caffeine Characteristics Widely used stimulant found in coffee, chocolate and tea Added to some pain killers to speed up their effects, e.g. aspirin Diuretic (frequent urination) Increases alertness, concentration and restlessness Can cause anxiety, irritability and sleeplessness 11

12 12 Found in chocolate Effects similar to caffeine Although theobromine does not cause harmful effects with humans, it is highly toxic to some domestic animals, including dogs and horses Theobromine Caffeine


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