Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Attitudes & Intentions. Attitude Is an overall evaluation of an object. It is an affective response of low physiological arousal/intensity."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6: Attitudes & Intentions
Attitude Is an overall evaluation of an object. It is an affective response of low physiological arousal/intensity. The object can be: –An ad –A product –A brand –A consumption situation –A spokesperson –An idea etc.
When Attitudes Play a Role When they are accessible, i.e., the likelihood of their activation is high. Accessibility depends on: –Self-relevance of attitude –Frequency of prior activation –The strength of association between the attitude concept and the attitude.
Extremely Unfavorable Extremely Favorable McDonald’s French Fries Dislike Very Much Like Very Much Very Bad Very Good Measuring Attitudes Attitudes are measured using “semantic differentials” – rating scales that are anchored by two opposing descriptions on either side of the scale.
Absolut vodka’s clever ads have created positive attitudes.
Another Absolut Ad
A Model of Consumer Decision Making Information in the environment Interpretation Exposure,attention, and comprehension Knowledge, meanings and beliefs Integration Attitudes and intentions Behavior Consumer decision making Memory Product knowledge and involvement
Variations in Level of Attitude Concept Levels of attitude concept Example – Fast Food Pizza restaurants Fast-food restaurants Burger King Hamburger restaurants Elgin McDonald’s McDonald’s McDonald’s at the Galleria Lunch mostly aloneDinner with kids and family Eating lunch with to get a quick bite between classes Eating dinner with kids at the Galleria while shopping Product class Product form Brand Model Brand/model/ general situation Brand/model/ specific situation
Variations in Level of Attitude Concept Levels of attitude concept Example -- Coffee Instant Coffee Starbucks Fresh Ground Filtered Taster’s Choice 100% Colombian At homeAway from home After lunch alone, watching TV, or with friends on weekends Usually on a whim, often unplanned. “Sugar in the Raw” a must. Product class Product form Brand Model Brand/model/ general situation Brand/model/ specific situation Gourmet Roast
Bristol Myers Squibb has built considerable brand equity – the overall evaluation of a brand in the market place. Brand equity = 1.Reluctance to substitute 2.Repeat purchase 3.Differential demand elasticity (?)
Crest has fluoride Crest is approved by the American Dental Association Crest has mint flavor Crest comes in a gel Crest is made by Procter & Gamble Crest has a red, white, and blue package Crest prevents cavities Crest freshens breath Crest gets teeth clean Crest comes in tubes Crest comes in a pump container Crest is more expensive than store brands Crest is what my parents use Crest has a tartar-control formula Crest has fluoride Crest has mint flavor Crest comes in a gel Crest comes in a pump container Crest has a tartar-control formula All beliefs about Crest Salient beliefs about Crest Attitude toward Crest Salient beliefs and Attitude Crest has fluoride Crest has mint flavor Crest comes in a gel Crest comes in a pump container Crest has a tartar-control formula
Comes in a pump Has a tartar-control formula Has fluoride Has mint flavor Comes in a gel Crest Salient beliefs and Attitude
Comes in a pump Gets teeth clean Is more expensive than store brands Has a red, white, and blue package Freshens breath Has a tartar-control formula Has fluoride Prevents cavities Is made by Procter & Gamble Approved by the American Dental Association Is what my parents use Has mint flavor Comes in a gel Crest Comes in tubes No mess Tastes good Salient beliefs and Attitude
Understanding Attitudes Attitudes depend on two things: –The strength of salient beliefs –The evaluation of the salient beliefs
The Multi-attribute Model It is a mathematical way of expressing the concept of attitudes. Multiply the strength of each salient belief with the corresponding evaluation. Add it all up. You now have a numerical representation of attitude.
7up A o = 27 Lemon-lime flavor e 3 = -1 All natural ingredients e 2 = +1 No caffeine e 1 = +3 Multi-attribute Attitude Model b 2 = 5 b 1 = 10 b 3 = 8
Diet Pepsi A o = 4 Cola flavor e 3 = +1 Caffeine e 2 = -3 No calories e 1 = +2 Multi-attribute Attitude Model b 2 = 6 b 1 = 6 b 3 = 10
Changing Attitudes Increase strength of positive salient belief –Decrease strength of negative salient belief Make a less-salient positive belief more salient Improve the evaluation of strong salient belief –Changing negative to positive is hard. Add a new salient belief that will be positively evaluated.
Measuring Evaluation Component “Sodas that have no caffeine” “ Sodas with cola flavor” Very Bad Very Good
Measuring Belief Component “Diet Pepsi has no caffeine” “ Diet Pepsi has cola flavor” Strongly Disagree 1—2—3—4—5—6—7—8—9--10 Strongly Agree
Attitude – Behavior Link Does a positive attitude mean favorable behavior. No. This relationship is examined in the Theory of Reasoned Action – a model of behavior that explains how attitudes link to behavior.
Attitude toward Pizza Hut A o Feedback Beliefs about Pizza Hut Behaviors toward Pizza Hut Has pan pizzas Has super supreme pizzas Has a salad bar Serves beer Is more expensive than Domino’s Has convenient location Has free parking Has pleasant employees Has nice atmosphere Go to Pizza Hut on Friday night Order a large pan pizza Complain to manager Ignore Pizza Hut ad on TV Use a Pizza Hut coupon for a free soft drink Recommend Pizza Hut to boss Read Pizza Hut menu Beliefs, Attitude, and Behaviors
The Theory of Reasoned Action Attitude toward behavior B A act Beliefs that behavior B leads to salient consequences Beliefs that relevant others think I should perform the behavior B Motivation to comply with relevant others Relative weighting for importance Intention to perform behavior B Behavior B Evaluation of salient consequences Subjective norm about behavior B SN
Behavioral Intention Rating Scale Extremely unlikely Extremely likely “All things considered, how likely are you to use newspaper coupons when buying groceries this week or next?
Factors that weaken the relationship between intention and behavior New Information Instability of Intentions Unforeseen Changes in Environmental Context Intervening Time Degree of Voluntary Control Unforeseen Intermediate Consumption Events Different Levels of Specificity