2Attitude Is an overall evaluation of an object. It is an affective response of low physiological arousal/intensity.The object can be:An adA productA brandA consumption situationA spokespersonAn idea etc.
3When Attitudes Play a Role When they are accessible, i.e., the likelihood of their activation is high.Accessibility depends on:Self-relevance of attitudeFrequency of prior activationThe strength of association between the attitude concept and the attitude.
4Measuring Attitudes McDonald’s French Fries Extremely Unfavorable Extremely FavorableDislike Very Much Like Very MuchVery Bad Very GoodAttitudes are measured using “semantic differentials” – rating scales that are anchored by two opposing descriptions on either side of the scale.
5Absolut vodka’s clever ads have created positive attitudes.
7A Model of Consumer Decision Making Information in the environmentInterpretationExposure,attention, and comprehensionMemoryProduct knowledge and involvementConsumer decision makingKnowledge, meanings and beliefsIntegrationAttitudes and intentionsBehavior
8Variations in Level of Attitude Concept Levels of attitude conceptExample – Fast FoodProduct classFast-food restaurantsProduct formPizza restaurantsHamburger restaurantsBrandMcDonald’sBurger KingModelElgin McDonald’sMcDonald’s at the GalleriaBrand/model/ general situationLunch mostly aloneDinner with kids and familyEating lunch with to get a quick bite between classesEating dinner with kids at the Galleria while shoppingBrand/model/ specific situation
9Variations in Level of Attitude Concept Levels of attitude conceptExample -- CoffeeProduct classCoffeeProduct formInstantFresh Ground FilteredBrandTaster’s ChoiceStarbucksModelGourmet Roast100% ColombianBrand/model/ general situationAt homeAway from homeUsually on a whim, often unplanned. “Sugar in the Raw” a must.Brand/model/ specific situationAfter lunch alone, watching TV, or with friends on weekends
10Bristol Myers Squibb has built considerable brand equity – the overall evaluation of a brand in the market place.Brand equity =Reluctance to substituteRepeat purchaseDifferential demand elasticity (?)
11Salient beliefs and Attitude All beliefs about CrestSalient beliefs about CrestCrest has fluorideCrest is approved by theAmerican Dental AssociationCrest has mint flavorCrest comes in a gelCrest is made by Procter &GambleCrest has a red, white, andblue packageCrest prevents cavitiesCrest freshens breathCrest gets teeth cleanCrest comes in tubesCrest comes in a pumpcontainerCrest is more expensive thanstore brandsCrest is what my parents useCrest has a tartar-controlformulaCrest has fluorideCrest has mint flavorCrest comes in a gelCrest comes in a pumpcontainerCrest has a tartar-controlformulaCrest has fluorideCrest has mint flavorCrest comes in a gelCrest comes in a pumpcontainerCrest has a tartar-controlformulaAttitude toward Crest
12Salient beliefs and Attitude Has mint flavorHas fluorideComes in a gelCrestComes in a pumpHas a tartar-controlformula
13Salient beliefs and Attitude Freshens breathHas mint flavorTastes goodPrevents cavitiesHas fluorideComes in a gelHas a red, white, and blue packageIs made by Procter & GambleCrestComes in a pumpApproved by the American Dental AssociationNo messIs what my parents useHas a tartar-controlformulaComes in tubesIs more expensive than store brandsGets teeth clean
14Understanding Attitudes Attitudes depend on two things:The strength of salient beliefsThe evaluation of the salient beliefs
15The Multi-attribute Model It is a mathematical way of expressing the concept of attitudes.Multiply the strength of each salient belief with the corresponding evaluation.Add it all up. You now have a numerical representation of attitude.
16Multi-attribute Attitude Model All natural ingredients No caffeineb1 = 10e1 = +3b2 = 57upAll natural ingredientse2 = +1b3 = 8Ao = 27Lemon-lime flavore3 = -1
18Changing Attitudes Increase strength of positive salient belief Decrease strength of negative salient beliefMake a less-salient positive belief more salientImprove the evaluation of strong salient beliefChanging negative to positive is hard.Add a new salient belief that will be positively evaluated.
19Measuring Evaluation Component “Sodas that have no caffeine”Very Bad Very Good“Sodas with cola flavor”Very Bad Very Good
20Measuring Belief Component “Diet Pepsi has no caffeine”Strongly Disagree 1—2—3—4—5—6—7—8— Strongly Agree“Diet Pepsi has cola flavor”Strongly Disagree 1—2—3—4—5—6—7—8— Strongly Agree
21Attitude – Behavior Link Does a positive attitude mean favorable behavior.No.This relationship is examined in the Theory of Reasoned Action – a model of behavior that explains how attitudes link to behavior.
22Beliefs, Attitude, and Behaviors Beliefs about Pizza HutBehaviors toward Pizza HutHas pan pizzasHas super supremepizzasHas a salad barServes beerIs more expensive thanDomino’sHas convenientlocationHas free parkingHas pleasantemployeesHas nice atmosphereGo to Pizza Hut onFriday nightOrder a large pan pizzaComplain to managerIgnore Pizza Hut ad onTVUse a Pizza Hut couponfor a free soft drinkRecommend Pizza Hutto bossRead Pizza Hut menuAttitude toward Pizza HutAoFeedback
23The Theory of Reasoned Action Beliefs that behavior B leads to salient consequencesAttitude toward behavior BAactEvaluation of salient consequencesIntention to perform behavior BRelative weighting for importanceBehavior BBeliefs that relevant others think I should perform the behavior BSubjective norm about behavior BSNMotivation to comply with relevant others
24Behavioral Intention Rating Scale “All things considered, how likely are you to use newspaper coupons when buying groceries this week or next?Extremely unlikely Extremely likely
25Factors that weaken the relationship between intention and behavior Intervening TimeDifferent Levels of SpecificityUnforeseen Intermediate Consumption EventsUnforeseen Changes in Environmental ContextDegree of Voluntary ControlInstability of IntentionsNew Information