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The Joy of Fear Speed demons get a high from risk taking and stimulants.

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Presentation on theme: "The Joy of Fear Speed demons get a high from risk taking and stimulants."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Joy of Fear Speed demons get a high from risk taking and stimulants.

2 Stress Any experiences that force us to adapt are inherently stressful. Any experiences that force us to adapt are inherently stressful. Stress can enhance our performance. Stress can enhance our performance. Chronic stress can destroy our ability to cope effectively. Chronic stress can destroy our ability to cope effectively.

3 Stress response When facing life-threatening When facing life-threatening experiences, the ANS dumps stress hormones: experiences, the ANS dumps stress hormones: Cortisol Cortisol Adrenaline (epinephrine) Adrenaline (epinephrine) Norepinephrine Norepinephrine People get addicted to the high these hormones produce. People get addicted to the high these hormones produce. Stimulant drugs mimic these effects Stimulant drugs mimic these effects

4 Stress-Drunkenness Loss of judgment/ decreased impulse control cause more harm to society than even alcohol Loss of judgment/ decreased impulse control cause more harm to society than even alcohol Much of this is self-induced Much of this is self-induced Adrenaline junkies love to be scared Adrenaline junkies love to be scared Biological antecedents are low levels of MAO which allows more dopamine into the nucleus accumbens, driving thrill seeking Biological antecedents are low levels of MAO which allows more dopamine into the nucleus accumbens, driving thrill seeking Promiscuity also demonstrates potency to overcome feelings of inadequacy Promiscuity also demonstrates potency to overcome feelings of inadequacy

5 Hypothalamus secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary to release ACTH which sends out cortisol Hypothalamus secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary to release ACTH which sends out cortisol Adrenals release catecholamines, epinephrine & norepinephrine Adrenals release catecholamines, epinephrine & norepinephrine They mobilize fat to make the heart beat faster They mobilize fat to make the heart beat faster

6 Stress response Cortisol increases blood sugar, speeds metabolism Cortisol increases blood sugar, speeds metabolism Epinephrine sends glucose to muscles and brain Epinephrine sends glucose to muscles and brain Norepinephrine speeds heart rate and raises blood pressure Norepinephrine speeds heart rate and raises blood pressure

7 Emotional response There is a psychological response to the hormonal changes. The person feels: There is a psychological response to the hormonal changes. The person feels: Stronger Stronger More competent More competent In charge, powerful In charge, powerful

8 Stress highs can be produced by: Amphetamines Amphetamines Cocaine Cocaine Caffeine Caffeine Risky behaviors, both legal and illegal Risky behaviors, both legal and illegal Shopping Shopping Gambling Gambling

9 Stress highs can be produced: By increasing excitatory neurotransmitters By increasing excitatory neurotransmitters Dopamine stimulates the nucleus accumbens Dopamine stimulates the nucleus accumbens By slowing reuptake of excitatory neurotransmitters By slowing reuptake of excitatory neurotransmitters By lowering GABA, which inhibits excitation By lowering GABA, which inhibits excitation

10 Withdrawal During withdrawal, the locus ceruleus produces excitation due to too much norepinephrine, resulting in cravings. During withdrawal, the locus ceruleus produces excitation due to too much norepinephrine, resulting in cravings. Reuse of the drug will reduce craving. Reuse of the drug will reduce craving. It also accounts for dual & opposing addictions: cocaine/ heroin, risk-taking/ alcohol, alcohol/ cigarettes. It also accounts for dual & opposing addictions: cocaine/ heroin, risk-taking/ alcohol, alcohol/ cigarettes. Chronic thrill seekers seek to avoid the discomfort of withdrawal by seeking more dangerous activities Chronic thrill seekers seek to avoid the discomfort of withdrawal by seeking more dangerous activities

11 People vary in response to stress 15% function in an organized, effective way 15% function in an organized, effective way 70% function to some extent 70% function to some extent 15% cope ineffectively, panicking or shutting down entirely 15% cope ineffectively, panicking or shutting down entirely

12 Physiological antecedents People respond to threat depending on the sensitivity of the reticular activating system in the brain stem. People respond to threat depending on the sensitivity of the reticular activating system in the brain stem. Responsiveness to novel stimuli is determined by heredity. Babies show how resistant they are within weeks. This relates to extraversion/ introversion. Responsiveness to novel stimuli is determined by heredity. Babies show how resistant they are within weeks. This relates to extraversion/ introversion.

13 Stress and performance Mild/ moderate arousal helps people perform optimally. Mild/ moderate arousal helps people perform optimally. Different people show different responses to the same stimuli. Different people show different responses to the same stimuli. Optimal performance triggers high self- esteem. Optimal performance triggers high self- esteem.

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15 Type-T personality Type-T personality The thrill seeker, adrenaline junkie searches for activities that test their coping responses, push them to the limit. The thrill seeker, adrenaline junkie searches for activities that test their coping responses, push them to the limit. Both heroes & psychopaths display calm in the face of threat Both heroes & psychopaths display calm in the face of threat Positive – used for benefits of others: EMT, firefighters, military, DEA agents. Positive – used for benefits of others: EMT, firefighters, military, DEA agents. Can be creative, adventurers Can be creative, adventurers Negative – done at risk of self or others: reckless driving, crime. Negative – done at risk of self or others: reckless driving, crime.

16 Type T personality Often have low levels of MAO, which regulates excitatory neurotransmissions. Often have low levels of MAO, which regulates excitatory neurotransmissions. They register low responses to stimuli. They register low responses to stimuli. People predisposed to boredom have a higher need for excitement, novelty People predisposed to boredom have a higher need for excitement, novelty They also have higher rates of depression, drug addiction, anxiety, anger, aggression, poorer school performance & poorer interpersonal skills They also have higher rates of depression, drug addiction, anxiety, anger, aggression, poorer school performance & poorer interpersonal skills Risks provide a false refuge from negative experiences of failure Risks provide a false refuge from negative experiences of failure Thrill chasing can lead to self-destructive behaviors- crime Thrill chasing can lead to self-destructive behaviors- crime Amphetamines raise excitation, allows them to feel more alive. Amphetamines raise excitation, allows them to feel more alive.

17 Type T personality Psychologically, they view the world as boring or hostile; others as a threat. Psychologically, they view the world as boring or hostile; others as a threat. Feelings of inadequacy are kept at bay while in high risk behaviors or under the influence of stimulants. Feelings of inadequacy are kept at bay while in high risk behaviors or under the influence of stimulants. May be creative, but also grandiose and aggressive. May be creative, but also grandiose and aggressive.

18 Receptor sites adapt as the brain is flooded with drugs that mimic neurotransmitters It is this adaptation that produces addiction

19 Psychological Effects of stimulants Deceive the user with feelings of energy, power in order to overcome feelings of vulnerability or inadequacy. Deceive the user with feelings of energy, power in order to overcome feelings of vulnerability or inadequacy. Relates to toddlers’ developmental stage. Relates to toddlers’ developmental stage. Feel excited by their freedom and motion Feel excited by their freedom and motion Feel threatened by failure as they manage challenges Feel threatened by failure as they manage challenges Feel a high when successful at new things Feel a high when successful at new things

20 Psychological Effects of stimulants In criminals, due to the denial & rationalization that protects the ego from consequences of behavior, they feel no empathy for victims’ pain. In criminals, due to the denial & rationalization that protects the ego from consequences of behavior, they feel no empathy for victims’ pain. They blame others for their consequences, seeing themselves as the victim. They blame others for their consequences, seeing themselves as the victim. They don’t learn from negative consequences. They don’t learn from negative consequences. They aren’t accurate in assessing risks & they believe they are in control of the risk. They aren’t accurate in assessing risks & they believe they are in control of the risk.

21 Psychological Effects of stimulants Thrill can come from the chase or from being chased. Thrill can come from the chase or from being chased. Thrill-seekers are attracted to high risk jobs, sports, high performance cars. Thrill-seekers are attracted to high risk jobs, sports, high performance cars. These types need to find each other to have a successful relationship. These types need to find each other to have a successful relationship.

22 Stimulant drugs Amphetamines Amphetamines Methamphetamines Methamphetamines Cocaine/ crack/ crank Cocaine/ crack/ crank Ritalin Ritalin Ephedrine Ephedrine Nicotine Nicotine Caffeine Caffeine

23 Beneficial uses Anesthesia Anesthesia Overcome fatigue Overcome fatigue Mood elevation - for depression in 1950s Mood elevation - for depression in 1950s Weight control Weight control Enhance competitiveness Enhance competitiveness Attention deficit disorder Attention deficit disorder Sleep disorders- narcolepsy Sleep disorders- narcolepsy

24 Concerns Acute toxicity Acute toxicity Chronic toxicity Chronic toxicity Dependence potential Dependence potential Most admissions to drug treatment Most admissions to drug treatment Reproductive effects Reproductive effects

25 Caffeine Caffeine is used more than any other psychoactive drug. Caffeine is used more than any other psychoactive drug. Coffee Coffee Tea Tea Chocolate Chocolate Soft drinks Soft drinks Over-the-counter drugs Over-the-counter drugs

26 Caffeine (mg.) in common drinks Coffee115 Coffee115 Tea 40 Tea 40 Chocolate milk 4 Chocolate milk 4 Milk chocolate 6 Milk chocolate 6 Dark chocolate 20 Dark chocolate 20 Mountain Dew 54 Mountain Dew 54 Coca-cola 45 Coca-cola 45

27 Caffeine- mechanism of action Xanthines- oldest stimulants known Xanthines- oldest stimulants known Caffeine- most effective Caffeine- most effective Theophylline- tea Theophylline- tea Theobromine- chocolate Theobromine- chocolate

28 Effects Caffeine works by blocking the brain’s receptors for adenosine, which produces sedation. Caffeine works by blocking the brain’s receptors for adenosine, which produces sedation. It activates the cerebral cortex and lowers fatigue. Can produce nervousness & disturb sleep. It activates the cerebral cortex and lowers fatigue. Can produce nervousness & disturb sleep. This does not improve cognitive performance. This does not improve cognitive performance.

29 Beneficial effects Caffeine can relieve headache by constricting the vessels in the brain. Caffeine can relieve headache by constricting the vessels in the brain. Can calm hyperactive children and extend attention span. Can calm hyperactive children and extend attention span. Can improve mood & energy, especially in boring conditions- expectations play a part in effects Can improve mood & energy, especially in boring conditions- expectations play a part in effects Cannot reduce effects of alcohol, although it can keep the drinker from falling asleep on the trip home- Is this good or bad? Cannot reduce effects of alcohol, although it can keep the drinker from falling asleep on the trip home- Is this good or bad?

30 Risks Benign breast disease, cysts seem to be reduced when caffeine is reduced. Benign breast disease, cysts seem to be reduced when caffeine is reduced. Links to infertility, miscarriage, lower birth weight in baby. Links to infertility, miscarriage, lower birth weight in baby. Coronary heart disease risks, increased cholesterol. Coronary heart disease risks, increased cholesterol. Caffeinism- nerves, irritability, insomnia, arrythmias, GI tract disturbances. Caffeinism- nerves, irritability, insomnia, arrythmias, GI tract disturbances.

31 Risks of combining energy drinks with alcohol Red Bull + vodka/ Jagerbomb are dangerous because the caffeine drinks are stimulants & alcohol is depressant Red Bull + vodka/ Jagerbomb are dangerous because the caffeine drinks are stimulants & alcohol is depressant Stimulant effects mask the intoxicating effects – can prevent a person from realizing how drunk s/he is- can cause extreme respiratory depression Stimulant effects mask the intoxicating effects – can prevent a person from realizing how drunk s/he is- can cause extreme respiratory depression Both are dehydrating, which upsets body’s ability to metabolize alcohol, increasing toxicity Both are dehydrating, which upsets body’s ability to metabolize alcohol, increasing toxicity

32 Can energy drinks improve cognition? In an experiment comparing an energy drink with caffeine & sugar to caffeine only drink/glucose-only drink/ herb only (ginseng + gingko) it was found that the best energy effects came from both glucose & caffeine, which slowed the crash from the sugar. In an experiment comparing an energy drink with caffeine & sugar to caffeine only drink/glucose-only drink/ herb only (ginseng + gingko) it was found that the best energy effects came from both glucose & caffeine, which slowed the crash from the sugar. The energizing effect lasted an hour+, while glucose only lasted 15 min. The energizing effect lasted an hour+, while glucose only lasted 15 min.

33 Pathological Gambling Impulse control disorder: Impulse control disorder: Recurrent gambling behavior, preoccupation with gambling, loss of control, chasing losses, worsens over time Recurrent gambling behavior, preoccupation with gambling, loss of control, chasing losses, worsens over time Personality characteristics: Personality characteristics: Competiveness, disinhibition, impulsivity, above-average intellect, high energy, self-indulgence, resistance to social norms Competiveness, disinhibition, impulsivity, above-average intellect, high energy, self-indulgence, resistance to social norms Most severe in those who began in adolescence Most severe in those who began in adolescence More proportion of income spent on gambling in lower SES groups (those in upper SES gamble on the stock market, etc.) More proportion of income spent on gambling in lower SES groups (those in upper SES gamble on the stock market, etc.) Health issues due to over-stimulation of HPA axis: Health issues due to over-stimulation of HPA axis: Damage to reproductive organs, problematic menstrual cycles, suppression of growth hormone, IBS, diabetes, depression, phobias, panic attacks Damage to reproductive organs, problematic menstrual cycles, suppression of growth hormone, IBS, diabetes, depression, phobias, panic attacks

34 Shopaholics Produces strong mood swings from bliss, satiation to depression & remorse Produces strong mood swings from bliss, satiation to depression & remorse Initial high relates to altered self image, fading into buyer’s remorse Initial high relates to altered self image, fading into buyer’s remorse Shopping may be indiscriminate, buying things not needed, that may not even fit Shopping may be indiscriminate, buying things not needed, that may not even fit Binge-purge occurs as shoppers try to get rid of the evidence of their weakness Binge-purge occurs as shoppers try to get rid of the evidence of their weakness

35 Autoerotic Fatalities Producing sexual excitement by asphyxiation to the point of altered consciousness due to hypoxia Producing sexual excitement by asphyxiation to the point of altered consciousness due to hypoxia This may be done alone or with a partner (bondage) This may be done alone or with a partner (bondage) It is said to relieve depression & exert some control over others It is said to relieve depression & exert some control over others Risk taking adds to excitement (like in affairs) Risk taking adds to excitement (like in affairs)


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