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©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. 2003. All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used.

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Presentation on theme: "©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. 2003. All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. An Introduction to Health and Physical Education Ted Temertzoglou Paul Challen ISBN Exercise Science Section 11: Performance Enhancing Substances and Techniques

3 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Ergogenic Aids  Ergogenic aids are used by some athletes to:  Improve physical appearance  Prevent and/or treat injuries, illnesses, or disease  Cope with stress  Increase athletic potential  Bridge the “genetic gap”  Three types of Ergogenic Aids:  Nutritional aids  Pharmacological aids  Physiological aids © iStockphoto.com/”Max Delson”

4 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Nutritional Aids  Nutritional supplements include:  Vitamins and minerals  Protein and amino acid supplements  Carnitine  Creatine  Caffeine © iStockphoto.com/”Marie C. Fields”

5 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Vitamins and Minerals  Regularly taking megavitamins may cause:  Illness  Tissue damage  Toxic effects to body  Supplements are beneficial when a clear deficiency is indicated  Athletes are advised to increase food intake, resulting in dietary sources of vitamins and minerals © iStockphoto.com/”sbarabu”

6 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Protein and Amino Acid Supplements  Benefits/risks of protein and amino acid supplements are fraught with conflicting research findings/evidence  Studies report that ingesting excessive amounts of protein can produce toxic effects due to overproduction of urea resulting in:  Dehydration  Muscle cramps  Impairment of thermoregulatory function © iStockphoto.com/”G2 Design Studio”

7 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Carnitine  Carnitine is advertised as a “fat burner” that claims to:  Decrease lactate production  Increase VO 2 max  Delay fatigue  Spare glycogen  Induce loss of body fat  Enhance aerobic and anaerobic capacity  Experimental data has failed to support these theories © iStockphoto.com/”pixhook”

8 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Creatine  Creatine is an oral supplement that claims to increase:  Phosphocreatine storage in muscle  Speed  Power  Strength  Effectiveness of creatine supplement still unclear  More studies need to be conducted on the safety of long-term use © iStockphoto.com/”technotr”

9 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Caffeine  Evidence suggests caffeine increases performance during prolonged endurance and intense short-term exercises  Increase alertness  Reduces fatigue  Energy drinks contain as much as 80mg of caffeine  Ingesting caffeine can cause:  Dehydration  Nervousness  Irritability © iStockphoto.com/”Limber”

10 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Pharmacological Aids  Pharmacological aids include:  Pain-masking drugs  Anabolic steroids  Prohormones  Human growth hormone  Erythropoietin © iStockphoto.com/”Servifoto”

11 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Pain-Masking Drugs  Pain-masking agents (narcotic analgesics) include:  Morphine  Heroin  Side effects include:  Inability to detect pain to prevent serious or permanent injury from occurring  Physical and psychological dependence © iStockphoto.com/”Shorrocks”

12 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Anabolic Steroids  Athletes take Anabolic steroids to:  Increase muscle mass  Increase strength  Decrease body fat  Harmful side effects include:  Organ damage (liver, kidney)  Increased cholesterol  Increased blood pressure  Increased aggression © iStockphoto.com/”vuk8691”

13 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Prohormones  Prohormones are a type of androgenic steroid  Use of prohormones (androstenedione in particular) claim to:  Increase physical power  Decrease body fat  No scientific data to support these theories  Harmful side effects include:  Baldness  Breast enlargement (in males)  aggression and violent behaviour

14 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Human Growth Hormone  Synthetic preparations of the Human growth hormone (HGH) is used to achieve:  Increased muscle mass  Limited weight gain  Improved aerobic endurance  Health risks include:  Heart problems  Excessive growth of hands and feet  Dangerous enlargement of organs (heart, kidneys, liver)

15 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Erythropoietin  Erythropoietin (EPO) used by some athletes competing in endurance sports  Shown to cause increase in levels of hemoglobin  Allows more oxygen to be carried to tissues  Higher red-cell count causes heart to work harder  Increases risk of cardiac fatigue and heart failure

16 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Restricted Pharmacological Substances  Restricted pharmacological substances include:  Alcohol  Marijuana  Local anaesthetics  Corticosteroids  Beta blockers © iStockphoto.com/”pixhook”

17 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Alcohol  Alcohol  Causes:  Sedative effects  Confusion  Lessen reaction time © iStockphoto.com/”pixhook”

18 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Marijuana  Marijuana  Causes:  Affects psychomotor function  Lowers reaction time © iStockphoto.com/”Limber”

19 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Local Anaesthetics  Local Anaesthetics  Causes:  Block pain  Further injury can result © iStockphoto.com/”mevans”

20 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Corticosteroids  Restricted pharmacological substances include:  Corticosteroids:  Used to open airways  Can be toxic © iStockphoto.com/”pixhook”

21 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Beta blockers  Beta Blockers  Causes:  Can cause low blood pressure  Disrupts sleep patterns © iStockphoto.com/”shorrocks”

22 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Physiological Aids  Physiological methods include:  Blood doping  Intravenous administration of blood, red blood cells, and related blood products:  Raises the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity  Increases cardiac output  Decreases lactate levels  Improves sweating response  Drug masking  Certain drugs are used to reduce the presence of banned substances  Includes agents that dilute concentration in:  Bloodstream  Diuretics

23 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Drug Testing  Drug Testing  Ensures an even playing field  Test are performed randomly  Performed year around © iStockphoto.com/”Christine Glade”

24 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Ethical Issues  Ethical Issues  What would you do?  How would your decision impact your family, country, or nation?  How would it impact your future? © iStockphoto.com/”bluestocking”

25 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook.


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