Presentation on theme: "Diffusion and Osmosis in the Human Body"— Presentation transcript:
1Diffusion and Osmosis in the Human Body Circulation, excretion, respiration, and hormone production.
2HomeostasisDefined as one of the fundamental characteristics of all living systemsIt is the tendency of an organism to maintain a stable, constant internal environmentMaintained by various organ systems in the bodyAn organ system is a group of organs that works together to perform a common function
3Circulatory SystemMade up of heart and various blood vessels filled with different types of blood cells and plateletsFlow of blood goes from right side of heart to left side of hear in the following path…right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava right ventricle pulmonary artery lungs (capillaries in the lungs allow for diffusion of CO2 out of blood stream and O2 into bloodstream) pulmonary vein left atrium left ventricle oxygenated blood pumped to body from aorta to other arteries
4Circulatory SystemArteries are blood vessels that flow away from the heart and typically carry oxygenated blood… the only deoxygenated artery is the pulmonary arteryVeins are blood vessels that flow towards the heart and typically carry deoxygenated blood and CO2 waste… the only oxygenated vein is the pulmonary veinBlood vessels get smaller as they get to areas in the body where gas exchanges must be made (lungs, body tissues, etc.) arteries branch into arterioles and veins branch into venules. Arterioles connect to venules through capillaries, the thinnest of all blood vessels. Through the walls of the capillaries, gasses are exchanged through the process of diffusion. Capillary beds have a total surface area in each human of about 6300 square meters!
6Respiration and Diffusion As you saw with your dissections, respiration depends heavily on both the circulatory system and the process of diffusion.The passage of air into your lungs comes in through the nasal cavity trachea branching system of bronchial tubes in each lung alveoliThe alveoli are lined with capillaries so that O2 you breathe in can enter the bloodstream and CO2 waste can leave the blood stream.Like most animals, your lungs are lined with moist mucus providing a wet environment for gas exchange
7Diffusion and Osmosis… a review Why does the CO2 leave the blood stream and O2 enter?... DiffusionDiffusion is a form of passive transport (no energy required) in which substances flow from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Substances such as O2 and CO2, are small enough to pass through the walls of the capillaries.A specific type of diffusion is osmosis, or the movement of water from high to low concentration due to a change in conditions (think of the eggs-periment)
8Diffusion and OsmosisThree types of environments can exist outside cells to effect the internal environmentIsotonic – concentration of solute is the same both in and out of cell, water movement is equalHypertonic – concentration of solute is greater outside the cell, water moves to the outside of cell to balance out (possibly resulting in cell shriveling)Hypotonic - concentration of solute is lower outside the cell, water moves into the cell to balance out (possibly resulting in cell explosion)
10Diffusion and osmosis in the kidney The main function of the kidneys is to filter our blood and remove waste as urine. Both kidneys do the same job. Blood is taken to the kidneys by the renal artery and when it is cleaned, it is returned to the heart by the renal vein. The urine is taken to the bladder by the ureters.
11Diffusion and osmosis in the kidney The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. They are long coiled tubes that act as filtering units in the kidney. Each nephron has a capsule (bowman’s capsule) that is in direct contact with a capillary bed known as the glomerulus. The glomerulus is the site of filtration. The capillaries in the glomerulus drain into more arterioles that continue to help blood get filtered along the nephron before returning to the renal vein. Reabsorption takes place between the nephron tubule and the second capillary bed.
12Diffusion and Osmosis in the kidney Maintaining water balance in the kidney can be inhibited by a diuretic, a substance that causes the kidneys to allow excess water loss. A very common diuretic is caffeine.Diuretics block the production of the hormone vasopressin, an anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). When the blood has a high concentration of sodium ions, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (both in the brain) triggers the release of ADH which would tell the kidneys to reabsorb more water to help rehydrate the body. This is an example of maintaining homeostasis with the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of glands and cells that release chemical messengers called hormones, directly into the blood stream.
13Hormones and Homeostasis The endocrine system helps maintain homeostasis with positive and negative feedback.(p235)Negative feedback involves constantly adjusting to correct and abnormal situation.Example – production of ADH returns water balance to normal, ADH production stopsPositive feedback involves processes that must be completed quickly and the production of some hormone triggers the production of moreExample – production of chemical clotting agents at the site of a cut will trigger the production of more clotting agents to rapidly clot and minimize blood loss