Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day"— Presentation transcript:

1 PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day
2011 Core 2

2 Presentation Overview
How can nutrition and recovery affect performance? Compare the dietary requirements of athletes in different sports considering pre-performance (including carbohydrate loading), during and post-performance needs Supplementation Vitamins/minerals Protein Caffeine Creatine products Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance Click 1 – introduce the topic to students. The athletes that we are going to look at include the rower, the marathon runner and the female gymnast. These were selected for the difference in energy demand. Time will not allow you to cover the three in depth so: The rower will be covered by the presenter The marathon runner will be done as an activity The female gymnast will be a take home activity In comparing the nutrition for these athletes, you need to cover the syllabus dash points for each athlete. Continually refer to the energy demands of the sport – duration and intensity. Activity 1 In pairs, have students complete the workbook activity according to the headings in the table. Discuss their responses, reviewing the energy demands and specific nature of each sport. Complete workbook ‘Activity 1’

3 How do the three activities differ?
Rower Nature of activity Requires a unique mixture of technique, power and endurance Men and women row 2000m Duration Between 5 and 8 minutes Intensity High/moderate intensity Fuel Source Carbohydrate (glycogen) Predominant energy system Aerobic energy system Lactic acid Marathon runner Gymnast Activity 1` The rower is completed for students. Go through this section of the table explaining each. Have students complete the column for the marathon runner and the gymnast. Review and discuss responses. This sets the scene for appropriate nutrition. For each of the following slides 3-6 the presenter is to go through the nutritional requirements of the rower, explain all the key principles of sports nutrition. I have provided some detail for you. Have students complete the marathon runner column. Bring up the marathon runner and discuss with students. Repeat for the gymnast.

4 How do the three activities differ?
Rower Nature of activity Requires a unique mixture of technique, power and endurance Men and women row 2000m Duration Between 5 and 8 minutes Intensity High/moderate intensity Fuel Source Carbohydrate (glycogen) Predominant energy system Aerobic energy system Lactic acid Marathon runner Nature of activity Continuous with surges at times increasing to high intensity Duration Over 2 hours Intensity Moderate intensity Fuel Source Carbohydrate (glycogen) and fat Predominant energy system Aerobic energy system Gymnast Nature of activity Technical skill, muscular strength, explosive power relative to body weight, flexibility and artistic impression are essential characteristics Duration From 10 seconds (vault) to 90 seconds for other routines Intensity High intensity Fuel Source Carbohydrate (glycogen) Predominant energy system ATP-PC (vault) Lactic Acid – other events Activity 1 The rower is completed for students. Go through this section of the table explaining each. Have students complete the column for the marathon runner and the gymnast. Review and discuss responses. This sets the scene for appropriate nutrition. For each of the following slides 3-6 the presenter is to go through the nutritional requirements of the rower, explain all the key principles of sports nutrition. I have provided some detail for you. Have students complete the marathon runner column. Bring up the marathon runner and discuss with students. Repeat for the gymnast.

5 Nutrition for Competition

6 Pre-performance nutrition
Rower Pre-training CHO intake is important to maintain blood glucose levels (glycogen depleted after an overnight fast), e.g. fruit, cereal bar and fluid (preferably a sports drink, liquid meal like Protein Plus or a smoothie/glass of juice). Pre-event meal containing CHO should be eaten 2-3 hours before event and should be low in fat and fibre to aid digestion and reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort or upsets. Consume ml of fluid in the hour before training commences to ensure the athlete is hydrated Marathon runner Gymnast Take home activity: Refer: The next three activities are to consolidate student understanding of the syllabus requirements for the dot point Nutritional considerations. It is particularly important to point out the differences and the similarities for these athletes and the reasons why. Go through the pre-performance nutritional requirements for the rower. Rower Some rowers need to take special care with pre-race eating, as it can be very uncomfortable to race with a full stomach. Low bulk choices such as liquid meals and sports bars can be useful in these situations. Activity 2 Have students complete the column for the marathon runner. Ensure to cover the guidelines for carbohydrate loading and examples of suitable foods (provided below). Highlight the mistakes athletes make with CHO loading. Discuss the responses with students, highlighting the principles of sports nutrition. Marathon runner Examples of foods: 3-4 hrs before – crumpets with jam/hone, flavoured milk, breakfast cereal and milk, pasta/rice with sauce 1-2 hrs before - liquid meal supplement, cereal bars, fruit, fruit flavoured yoghurt < one hour before – sports drink, cordial, sports bars Should be low GI because it provides a slower, more sustained release of glucose to the blood WHY? Because it ensures adequate glycogen stores are available for optimal performance. Athletes need to experiment to find the timing that best suits individual needs. Also the foods should be low in fat, moderate in fibre to aid digestion and reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort. The gymnast – Take home activity Complete workbook ‘Activity 2’

7 Pre-performance nutrition
Rower Pre-training CHO intake is important to maintain blood glucose levels (glycogen depleted after an overnight fast), e.g. fruit, cereal bar and fluid (preferably a sports drink, liquid meal like Protein Plus or a smoothie/glass of juice). Pre-event meal containing CHO should be eaten 2-3 hours before event and should be low in fat and fibre to aid digestion and reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort or upsets. Consume ml of fluid in the hour before training commences to ensure the athlete is hydrated Marathon runner CHO Loading Maximises glycogen stores prior to endurance competition, allowing exercise to be performed at optimal pace for longer. Involves 1-4 days of exercise taper while following a CHO diet to elevate glycogen stores. Pre-event meal 3-4 hrs before – have meal 1-2 hrs before – light snack 20-30 mins before – eat/drink something easily digestible Fluid Intake must begin the event fully hydrated. Drink regularly throughout the day leading up to the event/training. mls immediately before Gymnast Take home activity: Refer: The next three activities are to consolidate student understanding of the syllabus requirements for the dot point Nutritional considerations. It is particularly important to point out the differences and the similarities for these athletes and the reasons why. Go through the pre-performance nutritional requirements for the rower. Rower Some rowers need to take special care with pre-race eating, as it can be very uncomfortable to race with a full stomach. Low bulk choices such as liquid meals and sports bars can be useful in these situations. Activity 2 Have students complete the column for the marathon runner. Ensure to cover the guidelines for carbohydrate loading and examples of suitable foods (provided below). Highlight the mistakes athletes make with CHO loading. Discuss the responses with students, highlighting the principles of sports nutrition. Marathon runner Examples of foods: 3-4 hrs before – crumpets with jam/hone, flavoured milk, breakfast cereal and milk, pasta/rice with sauce 1-2 hrs before - liquid meal supplement, cereal bars, fruit, fruit flavoured yoghurt < one hour before – sports drink, cordial, sports bars Should be low GI because it provides a slower, more sustained release of glucose to the blood WHY? Because it ensures adequate glycogen stores are available for optimal performance. Athletes need to experiment to find the timing that best suits individual needs. Also the foods should be low in fat, moderate in fibre to aid digestion and reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort. The gymnast – Take home activity Complete workbook ‘Activity 2’

8 During performance nutrition
Rower Make up for the smaller CHO intake before exercise by consuming CHO during the training session, such as a sports drink. Fluid intake Long training sessions on the water lead to significant sweat losses so drinking regularly is essential. Try to begin drinking early in exercise and adopt a pattern of drinking small volumes regularly rather than trying to tolerate larger volumes in one hit. Weigh before and after to assess fluid loss. Marathon runner Gymnast Take home activity: Rower Rowers must go into the each race with fluid and fuel stores topped up, and feeling comfortable after their last meal. With the regatta or competition lasting days, the challenge is to recover between each day’s sessions and to prepare for the next race. Rowers need to organise themselves to have appropriate food available at all times during competition. Many athletes lose weight over the course of the competition due to being unable to consume their usual high energy diet (as they are spending much of the day in preparation and the race itself). To avoid this from happening, athletes need to take along a supply of cereal bars, liquid meal supplements, sports bars, fruit bars, dried fruit, sandwiches, yoghurt, juice etc. Drinking regularly during exercise can prevent the negative effects associated with dehydration and performance can be improved. Some useful hydration strategies: Drink with all meals and snacks. Take sufficient drink bottles to training. Keep some in the coach’s boat for top ups. Take a drink break every minutes or between pieces for a drink break Sports drinks are a recommended fluid choice during rowing. Activity 3 – complete as for Activity 2 Complete workbook ‘Activity 3’

9 During performance nutrition
Rower Make up for the smaller CHO intake before exercise by consuming CHO during the training session, such as a sports drink. Fluid intake Long training sessions on the water lead to significant sweat losses so drinking regularly is essential. Try to begin drinking early in exercise and adopt a pattern of drinking small volumes regularly rather than trying to tolerate larger volumes in one hit. Weigh before and after to assess fluid loss. Marathon runner Fluid Intake Drink early during exercise and adopt a pattern of drinking small volumes regularly Drinks should be cool, palatable and available Drink every mls every minutes during the race Sports drinks – useful for those who exercise for 60 minutes or more and should be consumed at regular intervals during the marathon Solid foods with a moderate to high GI can be consumed e.g. Ripe bananas, sandwiches with jam, honey or banana, jelly beans, cereal bars Gymnast Take home activity: Rower Rowers must go into the each race with fluid and fuel stores topped up, and feeling comfortable after their last meal. With the regatta or competition lasting days, the challenge is to recover between each day’s sessions and to prepare for the next race. Rowers need to organise themselves to have appropriate food available at all times during competition. Many athletes lose weight over the course of the competition due to being unable to consume their usual high energy diet (as they are spending much of the day in preparation and the race itself). To avoid this from happening, athletes need to take along a supply of cereal bars, liquid meal supplements, sports bars, fruit bars, dried fruit, sandwiches, yoghurt, juice etc. Drinking regularly during exercise can prevent the negative effects associated with dehydration and performance can be improved. Some useful hydration strategies: Drink with all meals and snacks. Take sufficient drink bottles to training. Keep some in the coach’s boat for top ups. Take a drink break every minutes or between pieces for a drink break Sports drinks are a recommended fluid choice during rowing. Activity 3 – complete as for Activity 2 Complete workbook ‘Activity 3’

10 Post-performance nutrition
Rower Refuelling To start the refuelling process an intake of at least 1gm/kg of CHO for most athletes is needed. This CHO should be consumed in the next meal or snack, as soon as possible after a heavy session to prepare for the next. Early intake of good quality protein foods (consumed with CHO maximises the effect) helps to promote the increase in protein rebuilding. Rehydration Compare pre and post exercise measurements of body weight to assess fluid loss. Should replace 150% of fluid deficit Marathon runner Gymnast Take home activity: Take students through the recovery strategies for the rower. Emphasise the important principles of recovery: Replace fluid and electrolytes lost in sweat Replace muscle glycogen stores – need to kick start the refuelling process with an intake of at least 1g/kg of CHO Repair any muscle or tissue damage caused by exercise (protein) Support of the immune system which suppressed by intensive training Rowers Recovery is a challenge for rowers who are undertaking two or more sessions each day, training for long periods, or competing in a program that involves multiple races. Between each workout the body has to adapt to the physiological stress. In training, with correct planning of the workload and the recovery time, adaptation allows the body to become fitter, stronger and faster. In competition, however, there may be less control over the work to recovery ratio. Activity 4 Complete as for Activity 3. Complete workbook ‘Activity 4’

11 Post-performance nutrition
Rower Refuelling To start the refuelling process an intake of at least 1gm/kg of CHO for most athletes is needed. This CHO should be consumed in the next meal or snack, as soon as possible after a heavy session to prepare for the next. Early intake of good quality protein foods (consumed with CHO maximises the effect) helps to promote the increase in protein rebuilding. Rehydration Compare pre and post exercise measurements of body weight to assess fluid loss. Should replace 150% of fluid deficit Marathon runner First priority – replace lost fluid (weigh before and after to assess loss) mls sports drink, sports gels, 500mls fruit juice or soft drink Consume CHO within 15 minutes post exercise to maximise and restore glycogen. Must eat g of CHO within 2 hours of endurance exercise to build glycogen stores. Waiting longer than 2 hours results in a 50% reduction of glycogen stored Add protein to the CHO in the ratio of 4 CHO:1 Protein. This nearly doubles the insulin response leading to more stored glycogen Gymnast Take home activity: Take students through the recovery strategies for the rower. Emphasise the important principles of recovery: Replace fluid and electrolytes lost in sweat Replace muscle glycogen stores – need to kick start the refuelling process with an intake of at least 1g/kg of CHO Repair any muscle or tissue damage caused by exercise (protein) Support of the immune system which suppressed by intensive training Rowers Recovery is a challenge for rowers who are undertaking two or more sessions each day, training for long periods, or competing in a program that involves multiple races. Between each workout the body has to adapt to the physiological stress. In training, with correct planning of the workload and the recovery time, adaptation allows the body to become fitter, stronger and faster. In competition, however, there may be less control over the work to recovery ratio. Activity 4 Complete as for Activity 3. Complete workbook ‘Activity 4’

12 Supplementation Vitamins
Case for Case against Supplementation is only required when athlete is: undergoing long-term weight loss travelling to countries with different food choices have a pre-existing vitamin or mineral deficiency which cannot be corrected through diet alone have a heavy competition schedule that interferes with normal eating Intake of excessive quantities of vitamins is not necessary and is potentially dangerous Excessive amounts of Vitamin A and D contribute to joint pain, headaches, nausea, fatigue and reduced appetite super-supplementation DOES NOT improve performance Refer students to Page 7 of the work book. Tell them that they are going to answer that question after you have taken them through the work on supplementation. They will have to try to recall the arguments without looking back at the content. Remember, they should have already covered this in class, so that it should be revision. As you take students through each of the following slides relating to the supplements identified in the syllabus, constantly stress the impact on performance. Remind students that the activity will require them draw out the implications of the use of these supplements by providing a discussion that addresses current research. Question students as to which supplements would be appropriate for the rower, marathon runner and the gymnast. Vitamins – inorganic compounds that are essential to maintaining bodily functi0ons such as energy release, metabolic regulation and tissue building

13 Supplementation Minerals
Calcium Case for Case against Inadequate consumption can weaken bones, increase the risk of stress fractures and inhibit proper muscle functioning, particularly in high impact sports involving running or jumping Under-consumption of calcium can lead to osteoporosis Calcium absorption diminishes with age Female athletes have higher needs and usually fall short of adequate intake Supplementation is generally deemed unnecessary because diet can provide adequate levels required. Iron Case for Case against Helps deliver oxygen to the working muscles and enhances adaptation to endurance training Lack of iron impairs aerobic capacity Supplementation of female athletes, who are not anaemic but who have serum ferritin levels less than ng/ml led to improvements in performance Supplementation is generally deemed unnecessary because diet can provide adequate levels required. Minerals – Nutrients found in food as a compound rather than as a free element. Minerals are important in regulating many body functions. Calcium – a key mineral in healthy bones and teeth, soft tissue and is essential in the body’s metabolic processes. Supplements are not needed if there is adequate calcium in the diet. Osteoporosis – a common condition in which bones become weak and fracture easily due to a loss of bone density. Those with the highest needs of calcium are children, adolescence, pregnant and breast feeding women. Iron – is a mineral found in haemoglobin, which comprises most of the red blood cells in the body. These cells collect and transport oxygen, delivering it to where it is needed. Note that supplementation may assist in the treatment or prevention of reduced iron status in athletes but should be part of a treatment package. Even very active vegetarian women can still manage to get all their iron requirements from food. Iron supplements can help if the athlete is seriously deficient but iron from foods is better absorbed and less irritating to the stomach than supplements.

14 Protein Case for Case against Endurance athletes in
training require extra protein to cover a small proportion of energy costs of their training and to assist in the repair and recovery process. NOTE: Research does not support the idea that athletes require massive amounts of protein in their diet. Amino acid supplements do not increase recovery, growth hormone release or fat loss. Increases calcium excretion in urine and increases the risk of osteoporosis Decreases the intake of vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Protein cannot be stored like CHO and the processing and filtration of additional urea can interfere with kidney function Increases the risk of certain cancers Strength athletes – require no more than gms of protein per kilogram of body weight. They require increased CHO and adequate glycogen supplies Protein – is an essential nutrient in the diet, used to manufacture body proteins that have important structural and functional roles. Proteins are made up of about 20 different sequences of amino acids. Structural proteins are needed to build connective tissue, cell membranes and muscle cells. Regulatory proteins act as enzymes or transport vehicles. The problem – the popularity of high protein diets goes beyond athletes to those who are looking for fast weight loss. A high protein diet, that excludes CHO and cuts calories often show a large initial weight loss due to the water loss that occurs with muscle glycogen depletion. Glycogen depletion leads to reduced performance (“bonking” “hitting the wall”). High protein/high fat diets can actually harm performance. Strength athletes require adequate glycogen storage in the muscle, since the high-intensity powerful contractions e.g. Weight training are fuelled with CHO. Protein cannot be oxidised rapidly enough to meet the demands of high intensity exercise. Warning – many protein supplements contain many additives that have no health benefits and which may even contain banned substances.

15 Caffeine Case for Case against Enhances endurance
performance because it promotes an increase in the utilisation of fat as an exercise fuel and “spares” the use of limited muscle stores of glycogen Caffeine-containing drinks have a diuretic effect and cause an athlete to become dehydrated Impairment or alteration of fine motor control and technique, over-arousal (interfering with recovery and sleep patterns) Excessive caffeine intake can lead to a fast heart rate, excessive urination, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, anxiety, depression, tremors, and difficulty sleeping. Caffeine – is a substance that occurs naturally in the leaves, nut and seeds of a number of plants. The main sources are tea, coffee, chocolate and cola drinks. There is sound evidence that caffeine enhances endurance and provides a small but worthwhile enhancement of performance over a range of exercise protocols. The following events/protocols can derive benefit from the use of caffeine: short-duration, high intensity events (1-5 minutes) prolonged high intensity events (20-60 minutes) endurance events (90+ minutes of continual exercise) ultra endurance events prolonged intermittent high intensity protocols (team and racquet sports) The mechanism underpinning performance benefits is unclear, but it is likely to involve alterations to the perception of effort or fatigue, as well as direct effects on the muscle. Studies also show that performance benefits do not increase with increases in the caffeine dose above 3mg/kg. The use of larger doses of caffeine increase the risk of side-effects. Impairment of technique may affect performance in a number of sports and over-arousal may interfere with the ability to recover between training sessions, or multi-day competitions. Important – finding the lowest, effective dose of caffeine that can lead to performance enhancement. There is ad hoc use by athletes and a lack of awareness of the side-effects or negative outcomes from caffeine use.

16 Creatine Case for Case against Accelerates gains in muscle size
and strength There is a 5-8% uptake in anaerobic capacity, especially when performing repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise for 6-60 seconds Prior creatine loading enhances glycogen storage and CHO loading in a trained muscle Can increase creatine storage by up to 25% and in some athletes 50% Creatine users may be more susceptible to cramps, muscle spasms and even pulled muscles BUT there are many studies refuting this claim. In fact, there are several studies that show a decreased prevalence of muscle cramps and tears and enhanced thermoregulation during prolonged exercise A transient increase in body weight during the initial loading week (water). This consistently disappeared during the following 7 days. Creatine – is a natural nutrient found in our bodies and about 95% of it is in skeletal muscles. Most comes from food or dietary supplements. Creatine monohydrate is the most practical form. Scientists continue to churn out new and positive data about creatine. The main problem is that many athletes are unaware of correct supplementation protocols.

17 Planning a response to the syllabus question
Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance. Complete workbook ‘Activity 5’ The syllabus requires students to critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance. Critically analyse – add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to analyse Throughout this section remind students of what the syllabus is expecting of them. Stress this aspect to students. Analyse: Identify components and relationship between them, draw out and relate implications. Explain to students the nature of this key verb. The maximum mark value for a core question is 8 marks. Stress the importance of being able to write a response bringing out these important characteristics in approximately one page. Have students complete a brief concept map – emphasise the need to plan a response. Explain what relate implications means – What happens? What effect does it have? Discuss the scaffold provided with students. 5. Draw focus to the take home activity. Encourage students to write a response to this question. What you must include in your answer: Complete workbook ‘Activity 5’

18 Planning a response to the syllabus question
Analyse - Identify components and the relationship between them; draw out and relate implications. Critically Analyse- add a degree of accuracy, depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to analyse Identify the components (the types of supplements) and provide evidence that supports or refutes their use to improve performance.. Relate implications. Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance. Complete workbook ‘Activity 5’ The syllabus requires students to critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance. Critically analyse – add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to analyse Throughout this section remind students of what the syllabus is expecting of them. Stress this aspect to students. Analyse: Identify components and relationship between them, draw out and relate implications. Explain to students the nature of this key verb. The maximum mark value for a core question is 8 marks. Stress the importance of being able to write a response bringing out these important characteristics in approximately one page. Have students complete a brief concept map – emphasise the need to plan a response. Explain what relate implications means – What happens? What effect does it have? Discuss the scaffold provided with students. 5. Draw focus to the take home activity. Encourage students to write a response to this question. What you must include in your answer: Provide accurate evidence for or against the use of supplements to improve performance Draw out and relate implications. Use linking words to do this. This must be thorough. Complete workbook ‘Activity 5’


Download ppt "PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google