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PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day 2011 Core 2. Presentation Overview Compare the dietary requirements of athletes in different sports considering pre-performance.

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Presentation on theme: "PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day 2011 Core 2. Presentation Overview Compare the dietary requirements of athletes in different sports considering pre-performance."— Presentation transcript:

1 PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day 2011 Core 2

2 Presentation Overview Compare the dietary requirements of athletes in different sports considering pre-performance (including carbohydrate loading), during and post-performance needs Supplementation -Vitamins/minerals -Protein -Caffeine -Creatine products Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance Complete workbook ‘Activity 1’ How can nutrition and recovery affect performance?

3 How do the three activities differ ? Rower Nature of activity Requires a unique mixture of technique, power and endurance Men and women row 2000m Duration Between 5 and 8 minutes Intensity High/moderate intensity Fuel Source Carbohydrate (glycogen) Predominant energy system Aerobic energy system Lactic acid Marathon runnerGymnast

4 How do the three activities differ ? Rower Nature of activity Requires a unique mixture of technique, power and endurance Men and women row 2000m Duration Between 5 and 8 minutes Intensity High/moderate intensity Fuel Source Carbohydrate (glycogen) Predominant energy system Aerobic energy system Lactic acid Marathon runner Nature of activity Continuous with surges at times increasing to high intensity Duration Over 2 hours Intensity Moderate intensity Fuel Source Carbohydrate (glycogen) and fat Predominant energy system Aerobic energy system Gymnast Nature of activity Technical skill, muscular strength, explosive power relative to body weight, flexibility and artistic impression are essential characteristics Duration From 10 seconds (vault) to 90 seconds for other routines Intensity High intensity Fuel Source Carbohydrate (glycogen) Predominant energy system ATP-PC (vault) Lactic Acid – other events

5 Nutrition for Competition

6 Pre-performance nutrition Rower Pre-training CHO intake is important to maintain blood glucose levels (glycogen depleted after an overnight fast), e.g. fruit, cereal bar and fluid (preferably a sports drink, liquid meal like Protein Plus or a smoothie/glass of juice). Pre-event meal containing CHO should be eaten 2-3 hours before event and should be low in fat and fibre to aid digestion and reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort or upsets. Consume ml of fluid in the hour before training commences to ensure the athlete is hydrated Marathon runnerGymnast Take home activity: Refer: ets/sports/gymnastics ets/sports/gymnastics Complete workbook ‘Activity 2’

7 Pre-performance nutrition Rower Pre-training CHO intake is important to maintain blood glucose levels (glycogen depleted after an overnight fast), e.g. fruit, cereal bar and fluid (preferably a sports drink, liquid meal like Protein Plus or a smoothie/glass of juice). Pre-event meal containing CHO should be eaten 2-3 hours before event and should be low in fat and fibre to aid digestion and reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort or upsets. Consume ml of fluid in the hour before training commences to ensure the athlete is hydrated Marathon runner CHO Loading Maximises glycogen stores prior to endurance competition, allowing exercise to be performed at optimal pace for longer. Involves 1-4 days of exercise taper while following a CHO diet to elevate glycogen stores. Pre-event meal 3-4 hrs before – have meal 1-2 hrs before – light snack mins before – eat/drink something easily digestible Fluid Intake must begin the event fully hydrated. Drink regularly throughout the day leading up to the event/training mls immediately before Gymnast Take home activity: Refer: ets/sports/gymnastics ets/sports/gymnastics Complete workbook ‘Activity 2’

8 During performance nutrition Rower Make up for the smaller CHO intake before exercise by consuming CHO during the training session, such as a sports drink. Fluid intake Long training sessions on the water lead to significant sweat losses so drinking regularly is essential. Try to begin drinking early in exercise and adopt a pattern of drinking small volumes regularly rather than trying to tolerate larger volumes in one hit. Weigh before and after to assess fluid loss. Marathon runnerGymnast Take home activity: ets/sports/gymnastics ets/sports/gymnastics Complete workbook ‘Activity 3’

9 During performance nutrition Rower Make up for the smaller CHO intake before exercise by consuming CHO during the training session, such as a sports drink. Fluid intake Long training sessions on the water lead to significant sweat losses so drinking regularly is essential. Try to begin drinking early in exercise and adopt a pattern of drinking small volumes regularly rather than trying to tolerate larger volumes in one hit. Weigh before and after to assess fluid loss. Marathon runner Fluid Intake Drink early during exercise and adopt a pattern of drinking small volumes regularly Drinks should be cool, palatable and available Drink every mls every minutes during the race Sports drinks – useful for those who exercise for 60 minutes or more and should be consumed at regular intervals during the marathon Solid foods with a moderate to high GI can be consumed e.g. Ripe bananas, sandwiches with jam, honey or banana, jelly beans, cereal bars Gymnast Take home activity: ets/sports/gymnastics ets/sports/gymnastics Complete workbook ‘Activity 3’

10 Post-performance nutrition Rower Refuelling To start the refuelling process an intake of at least 1gm/kg of CHO for most athletes is needed. This CHO should be consumed in the next meal or snack, as soon as possible after a heavy session to prepare for the next. Early intake of good quality protein foods (consumed with CHO maximises the effect) helps to promote the increase in protein rebuilding. Rehydration Compare pre and post exercise measurements of body weight to assess fluid loss. Should replace 150% of fluid deficit Marathon runnerGymnast Take home activity: gov.au/ais/nutrition/f actsheets/sports/gym nastics gov.au/ais/nutrition/f actsheets/sports/gym nastics Complete workbook ‘Activity 4’

11 Post-performance nutrition Rower Refuelling To start the refuelling process an intake of at least 1gm/kg of CHO for most athletes is needed. This CHO should be consumed in the next meal or snack, as soon as possible after a heavy session to prepare for the next. Early intake of good quality protein foods (consumed with CHO maximises the effect) helps to promote the increase in protein rebuilding. Rehydration Compare pre and post exercise measurements of body weight to assess fluid loss. Should replace 150% of fluid deficit Marathon runner First priority – replace lost fluid (weigh before and after to assess loss) mls sports drink, sports gels, 500mls fruit juice or soft drink Consume CHO within 15 minutes post exercise to maximise and restore glycogen. Must eat g of CHO within 2 hours of endurance exercise to build glycogen stores. Waiting longer than 2 hours results in a 50% reduction of glycogen stored Add protein to the CHO in the ratio of 4 CHO:1 Protein. This nearly doubles the insulin response leading to more stored glycogen Gymnast Take home activity: gov.au/ais/nutrition/f actsheets/sports/gym nastics gov.au/ais/nutrition/f actsheets/sports/gym nastics Complete workbook ‘Activity 4’

12 Supplementation Vitamins Case forCase against Supplementation is only required when athlete is: undergoing long-term weight loss travelling to countries with different food choices have a pre-existing vitamin or mineral deficiency which cannot be corrected through diet alone have a heavy competition schedule that interferes with normal eating Intake of excessive quantities of vitamins is not necessary and is potentially dangerous Excessive amounts of Vitamin A and D contribute to joint pain, headaches, nausea, fatigue and reduced appetite super-supplementation DOES NOT improve performance

13 Supplementation Minerals Case forCase against Inadequate consumption can weaken bones, increase the risk of stress fractures and inhibit proper muscle functioning, particularly in high impact sports involving running or jumping Under-consumption of calcium can lead to osteoporosis Calcium absorption diminishes with age Female athletes have higher needs and usually fall short of adequate intake Supplementation is generally deemed unnecessary because diet can provide adequate levels required. Calcium Case forCase against Helps deliver oxygen to the working muscles and enhances adaptation to endurance training Lack of iron impairs aerobic capacity Supplementation of female athletes, who are not anaemic but who have serum ferritin levels less than ng/ml led to improvements in performance Supplementation is generally deemed unnecessary because diet can provide adequate levels required. Iron

14 Protein Case forCase against Endurance athletes in training require extra protein to cover a small proportion of energy costs of their training and to assist in the repair and recovery process. NOTE: Research does not support the idea that athletes require massive amounts of protein in their diet. Amino acid supplements do not increase recovery, growth hormone release or fat loss. Increases calcium excretion in urine and increases the risk of osteoporosis Decreases the intake of vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Protein cannot be stored like CHO and the processing and filtration of additional urea can interfere with kidney function Increases the risk of certain cancers Strength athletes – require no more than gms of protein per kilogram of body weight. They require increased CHO and adequate glycogen supplies

15 Case forCase against Enhances endurance performance because it promotes an increase in the utilisation of fat as an exercise fuel and “spares” the use of limited muscle stores of glycogen Caffeine-containing drinks have a diuretic effect and cause an athlete to become dehydrated Impairment or alteration of fine motor control and technique, over-arousal (interfering with recovery and sleep patterns) Excessive caffeine intake can lead to a fast heart rate, excessive urination, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, anxiety, depression, tremors, and difficulty sleeping. Caffeine

16 Creatine Case forCase against Accelerates gains in muscle size and strength There is a 5-8% uptake in anaerobic capacity, especially when performing repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise for 6-60 seconds Prior creatine loading enhances glycogen storage and CHO loading in a trained muscle Can increase creatine storage by up to 25% and in some athletes 50% Creatine users may be more susceptible to cramps, muscle spasms and even pulled muscles BUT there are many studies refuting this claim. In fact, there are several studies that show a decreased prevalence of muscle cramps and tears and enhanced thermoregulation during prolonged exercise A transient increase in body weight during the initial loading week (water). This consistently disappeared during the following 7 days.

17 Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance. Planning a response to the syllabus question Complete workbook ‘Activity 5’ What you must include in your answer:

18 Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance. Planning a response to the syllabus question Complete workbook ‘Activity 5’ Analyse - Identify components and the relationship between them; draw out and relate implications. Critically Analyse - add a degree of accuracy, depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to analyse Identify the components (the types of supplements) and provide evidence that supports or refutes their use to improve performance.. Relate implications. What you must include in your answer: Provide accurate evidence for or against the use of supplements to improve performance Draw out and relate implications. Use linking words to do this. This must be thorough.


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