Knowledge Claim a declaration of conviction says I know that or I believe that…
Knowledge Claim supported by evidence whose nature depends on the training and the experiment of the claimer evidence can be a first hand observation, deference to authority or a plausible explanation
Knowledge Claim deference to authority can range from naïve acceptance of the authority to a more careful consideration of evidence
Knowledge Claim e.g. I believe the Leafs will win the Cup this year.
Evidence data that supports the claim being made authoritative person is making claim. Claim is dependent on their credentials
Evidence e.g. I have been following the Leafs for over 30 years. I know what I am talking about.
Evidential Argument an argument based on the evidence that is relevant to the listener. Sometimes the evidence is given in the form of a critical experiment that is overwhelmingly convincing.
Evidential Argument e.g. you all know me and believe that I know what I am talking about.
E.G. A friend says, “ I think Dr. Pop is the best soft drink.” To convince you she says, “Celine Dion recommends this product”. 3 out of 4 people tested like it a nutritional analysis shows that it has less caffeine and sugar than other drinks.
Which one of these arguments would convince you? WHY? “Celine Dion recommends this product”. 3 out of 4 people tested like it a nutritional analysis shows that is has less caffeine and sugar than other drinks.
Evaluating Knowledge Claims Is the evidence plausible? Does it relate to my personal experience? Could I do the experiment myself? Can I model the experiment? Will I achieve the same result?
E.g. The atom has a positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons Earlier claims said that the atom was a mass of positive and negative regions, “plum pudding model” Rutherford performed the gold foil experiment This showed that most of the atom was empty space
E.g. The atom has a positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons This led to wide spread acceptance of this new model Experiment was repeated several times with the same results Was considered a critical experiment