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Stimulating Beverages. Secondary Plant Products What are secondary products ? v v Alkaloids v v Essential Oils v v Glycosides.

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Presentation on theme: "Stimulating Beverages. Secondary Plant Products What are secondary products ? v v Alkaloids v v Essential Oils v v Glycosides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stimulating Beverages

2 Secondary Plant Products What are secondary products ? v v Alkaloids v v Essential Oils v v Glycosides

3 Caffeine v v Alkaloid with physiological effects on people v v Stimulates CNS v v Promotes alertness and endurance v v Constricts blood vessels v v Increase heart beat

4 Caffeine Content of Common Products v v Drip coffee mg v v Tea mg v v Cocoa mg v v Coca Cola mg v v Diet Coke mg v v Dr. Pepper mg v v Mr. Pibb mg v v Mt. Dew mg v v Pepsi mg v v Surge mg v v Jolt Cola mg v v Excedrin mg v v Anacin mg v v NoDoz mg v v Vivarin mg v v Midol mg

5 Coffee - the beverage v v Made from seeds of Coffea arabica v v Seeds occur in coffee berries (cherries) v v Fruit pulp is fermented to free seeds v v Roasting and grinding bring out essential oils v v Caffeine and essential oils contribute to properties and flavor

6 Flowers and berries of Coffea arabica

7 Coffea arabica cherries ready for picking

8 Coffee cherries are picked by hand by worker in Columbia

9 Coffea arabica native to Ethiopia

10 History of coffee drinking v v Long history of use in Arab world v v Introduced to Europe in 1615 v v By 1700 coffee houses popular throughout Europe v v Especially popular in England - often called “penny universities” and “seminaries of sedition”

11 Coffea arabica Plantations v v Dutch established plantations in East Indies late in 17th century v v Trees taken to Botanical Gardens in Amsterdam and Paris v v From here plantations started on Caribbean islands and S.A. early in 18th century v v Today Brazil and Columbia are world’s leading producers

12 Tea v v From tip leaves of Camellia sinensis v v Shrub or small tree native to Tibet, India, China, and Burma. v v Still largely grown in this region of the world v v Caffeine, theophylline, tannins and theol contribute to flavors and stimulating properties

13 Botanical print of tea plant, Camellia sinensis

14 Workers at tea plantation in the Darjeeling region of India

15

16 History v v Introduced to Europe early in 17th century about same time as coffee v v Became very important in England before the end of the 17th century v v Important in history of US because of the Boston Tea Party and its involvement in Revolutionary War v v Two “inventions”in 1904

17 Chocolate and cocoa v v Seeds of Theobroma cacao v v Confection as well as a beverage v v Native to tropical Central and South America v v Today Ivory Coast and Brazil lead the world in cocoa bean production v v Other tropical countries in West Africa and South and Central America are also major contributors

18 Early History v v According to Aztec mythology the god Quetzalcoatl that gave cacao beans to the Aztec people v v The cacao beans were offered as gifts to the gods and also used to make a beverage consumed by noblemen and priests on ceremonial occasions

19 Quetzalcoatl - Aztec god

20 Chocolatl - spicy bitter beverage v v From roasted and coarsely ground beans v v Various spices including chili peppers and vanilla beans. v v Boiling water was added and the mixture was whipped to a foamy consistency

21 Ancient Chocolatl Vessels from Central America

22 European discovery v v Columbus in 1502 encountered cacao beans in Caribbean islands v v Natives used these beans as money and also for a spicy beverage

23 Mexican Conquest v v When conquistador Cortes invaded Mexico in 1519, found Montezuma drinking chocolatl from a golden goblet v v Aztecs believed Cortes a reincarnation of Quetzalcoatl, Cortes was showered with riches and offered chocolatl

24 Cortes encounters Montezuma

25 Introduction to Europe v v Cortes introduced beverage to Spain in 1528 v v Spanish court added sugar v v Spanish had monopoly on cacao for many years v v By 1650 a recognizable cocoa was served throughout Europe v v Competing with coffee and tea but never equal because of high fat

26 Nineteenth century v v High fat problems were solved in 1828 when a Dutch chemist developed a process to remove some of the fat or cocoa butter v v In 1847 an English company, Fry and Sons, added cocoa butter and sugar to the ground beans to make chocolate v v This was the creation of the first chocolate bar

27 Cacao trees v v Theobroma cacao is a small tree v v Football-shaped pods that form directly on the main trunk v v Inside fruit are 20 to 40 seeds or beans surrounded by a white sweet sticky pulp

28 Processing v v When pods are ripe the pulpy seeds are removed and allowed to ferment v v The chocolate taste and aroma develop as the beans ferment v v Beans dried either in the sun or mechanically and shipped to processing centers where the beans are the roasted

29 Further processing v v Seeds are cracked open freeing the large cotyledons, or nibs v v Nibs are crushed to produce a dark brown oily paste, the chocolate liquor v v Liquor can be solidified into squares of baking chocolate v v Cocoa butter can be removed to produce cocoa powder

30 Uses of cocoa butter v v Added to the chocolate liquor to produce chocolate candy v v Main ingredient for white chocolate v v Suntan lotions, soaps and cosmetics

31 Recipe for chocolate candy v v Chocolate liquor; sugar, cocoa butter, vanilla, and often milk v v Conching process involves a mechanical kneading and stirring that gives chocolate its smoothness v v After conching liquid poured into molds

32 Coca Cola v v From seeds of the kola tree Cola nitida v v Native to west Africa v v Relative of the cacao tree, bears pods with 8 seeds v v In Africa the seeds used as stimulant and as an appetite depressant v v In addition to the caffeine, small quantities of kolanin, which act as a heart stimulant

33 Processing v v Fleshy seed coats are removed and the seeds are allowed to ferment v v Seeds dried and pulverized

34 Coca-Cola v v Developed in 1886 by Dr. John Styth Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist v v Contained carbonated water, caramel coloring, an extract of coca leaves, an extract from the powdered kola seeds, sugar, vanilla, cinnamon, and lime juice v v Exact formula is a highly guarded secret v v Coca extracts are still used - since 1903 the cocaine is removed

35 Other caffeine beverages v v Throughout world native populations consume other caffeine containing beverages

36 Summary v v Caffeine and caffeine-like alkaloids have a stimulating effect on the mammalian central nervous system v v Coffea arabica, Thea sinensis, and Theobroma cacao long use in stimulating beverages and historically have played an important role in human affairs v v Today coffee, tea, chocolate, and cola are consumed globally


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