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Stimulating Beverages. Secondary Plant Products What are secondary products ? v v Alkaloids v v Essential Oils v v Glycosides.

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Presentation on theme: "Stimulating Beverages. Secondary Plant Products What are secondary products ? v v Alkaloids v v Essential Oils v v Glycosides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stimulating Beverages

2 Secondary Plant Products What are secondary products ? v v Alkaloids v v Essential Oils v v Glycosides

3 Caffeine v v Alkaloid with physiological effects on people v v Stimulates CNS v v Promotes alertness and endurance v v Constricts blood vessels v v Increase heart beat

4 Caffeine Content of Common Products v v Drip coffee...115 mg v v Tea..................40 mg v v Cocoa..............13 mg v v Coca Cola.......46 mg v v Diet Coke.......46 mg v v Dr. Pepper......40 mg v v Mr. Pibb..........41 mg v v Mt. Dew..........54 mg v v Pepsi...............38 mg v v Surge...............51 mg v v Jolt Cola..........71 mg v v Excedrin.........65 mg v v Anacin............32 mg v v NoDoz...........100 mg v v Vivarin..........200 mg v v Midol.............600 mg

5 Coffee - the beverage v v Made from seeds of Coffea arabica v v Seeds occur in coffee berries (cherries) v v Fruit pulp is fermented to free seeds v v Roasting and grinding bring out essential oils v v Caffeine and essential oils contribute to properties and flavor

6 Flowers and berries of Coffea arabica

7 Coffea arabica cherries ready for picking

8 Coffee cherries are picked by hand by worker in Columbia

9 Coffea arabica native to Ethiopia

10 History of coffee drinking v v Long history of use in Arab world v v Introduced to Europe in 1615 v v By 1700 coffee houses popular throughout Europe v v Especially popular in England - often called “penny universities” and “seminaries of sedition”

11 Coffea arabica Plantations v v Dutch established plantations in East Indies late in 17th century v v Trees taken to Botanical Gardens in Amsterdam and Paris v v From here plantations started on Caribbean islands and S.A. early in 18th century v v Today Brazil and Columbia are world’s leading producers

12 Tea v v From tip leaves of Camellia sinensis v v Shrub or small tree native to Tibet, India, China, and Burma. v v Still largely grown in this region of the world v v Caffeine, theophylline, tannins and theol contribute to flavors and stimulating properties

13 Botanical print of tea plant, Camellia sinensis

14 Workers at tea plantation in the Darjeeling region of India


16 History v v Introduced to Europe early in 17th century about same time as coffee v v Became very important in England before the end of the 17th century v v Important in history of US because of the Boston Tea Party and its involvement in Revolutionary War v v Two “inventions”in 1904

17 Chocolate and cocoa v v Seeds of Theobroma cacao v v Confection as well as a beverage v v Native to tropical Central and South America v v Today Ivory Coast and Brazil lead the world in cocoa bean production v v Other tropical countries in West Africa and South and Central America are also major contributors

18 Early History v v According to Aztec mythology the god Quetzalcoatl that gave cacao beans to the Aztec people v v The cacao beans were offered as gifts to the gods and also used to make a beverage consumed by noblemen and priests on ceremonial occasions

19 Quetzalcoatl - Aztec god

20 Chocolatl - spicy bitter beverage v v From roasted and coarsely ground beans v v Various spices including chili peppers and vanilla beans. v v Boiling water was added and the mixture was whipped to a foamy consistency

21 Ancient Chocolatl Vessels from Central America

22 European discovery v v Columbus in 1502 encountered cacao beans in Caribbean islands v v Natives used these beans as money and also for a spicy beverage

23 Mexican Conquest v v When conquistador Cortes invaded Mexico in 1519, found Montezuma drinking chocolatl from a golden goblet v v Aztecs believed Cortes a reincarnation of Quetzalcoatl, Cortes was showered with riches and offered chocolatl

24 Cortes encounters Montezuma

25 Introduction to Europe v v Cortes introduced beverage to Spain in 1528 v v Spanish court added sugar v v Spanish had monopoly on cacao for many years v v By 1650 a recognizable cocoa was served throughout Europe v v Competing with coffee and tea but never equal because of high fat

26 Nineteenth century v v High fat problems were solved in 1828 when a Dutch chemist developed a process to remove some of the fat or cocoa butter v v In 1847 an English company, Fry and Sons, added cocoa butter and sugar to the ground beans to make chocolate v v This was the creation of the first chocolate bar

27 Cacao trees v v Theobroma cacao is a small tree v v Football-shaped pods that form directly on the main trunk v v Inside fruit are 20 to 40 seeds or beans surrounded by a white sweet sticky pulp

28 Processing v v When pods are ripe the pulpy seeds are removed and allowed to ferment v v The chocolate taste and aroma develop as the beans ferment v v Beans dried either in the sun or mechanically and shipped to processing centers where the beans are the roasted

29 Further processing v v Seeds are cracked open freeing the large cotyledons, or nibs v v Nibs are crushed to produce a dark brown oily paste, the chocolate liquor v v Liquor can be solidified into squares of baking chocolate v v Cocoa butter can be removed to produce cocoa powder

30 Uses of cocoa butter v v Added to the chocolate liquor to produce chocolate candy v v Main ingredient for white chocolate v v Suntan lotions, soaps and cosmetics

31 Recipe for chocolate candy v v Chocolate liquor; sugar, cocoa butter, vanilla, and often milk v v Conching process involves a mechanical kneading and stirring that gives chocolate its smoothness v v After conching liquid poured into molds

32 Coca Cola v v From seeds of the kola tree Cola nitida v v Native to west Africa v v Relative of the cacao tree, bears pods with 8 seeds v v In Africa the seeds used as stimulant and as an appetite depressant v v In addition to the caffeine, small quantities of kolanin, which act as a heart stimulant

33 Processing v v Fleshy seed coats are removed and the seeds are allowed to ferment v v Seeds dried and pulverized

34 Coca-Cola v v Developed in 1886 by Dr. John Styth Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist v v Contained carbonated water, caramel coloring, an extract of coca leaves, an extract from the powdered kola seeds, sugar, vanilla, cinnamon, and lime juice v v Exact formula is a highly guarded secret v v Coca extracts are still used - since 1903 the cocaine is removed

35 Other caffeine beverages v v Throughout world native populations consume other caffeine containing beverages

36 Summary v v Caffeine and caffeine-like alkaloids have a stimulating effect on the mammalian central nervous system v v Coffea arabica, Thea sinensis, and Theobroma cacao long use in stimulating beverages and historically have played an important role in human affairs v v Today coffee, tea, chocolate, and cola are consumed globally

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