Presentation on theme: "Drugs and its Effect on One’s Behavior 9 th grade health."— Presentation transcript:
Drugs and its Effect on One’s Behavior 9 th grade health
Neurons Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals which transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across the synapse. Major neurotransmitters: ▫glutamate, aspartame ▫Monoamines: dopamine (DA), epinephrine (adren aline), serotonin, acetylcholine, adenosine, nitric oxide.
What are drugs? Drugs are substances that are used to treat or prevent diseases. They are also used to relieve pains, to help control mental or physical ailments, and even to help diagnose illnesses.
Drug Vocab Tolerance ▫Body becomes accustomed to drug and causes the user to experience a need for more and more drug to achieve the desired effect or high. Psychological Dependence ▫A condition that occurs overtime and causes user to believe that drug is needed in order to feel good or function normally.
Classification of Drugs Prescription Marijuana and THC Inhalants Steroids Psychoactive “ Club Drugs ”/ “concert Drugs” Stimulants Depressants
Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: COCAINE SHORT TERM EFFECTS: Increased blood pressure Constricted blood vessels Dilated pupils Mental alertness Increased energy Increased heart rate Decreased appetite Increased temperature
LONG TERM EFFECTS (Physiological): heart disease heart attacks respiratory failure stroke seizures gastrointestinal problems PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS: convulsions, nausea, blurred vision, chest pain, fever, muscle spasms, and coma. Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: COCAINE
LONG TERM EFFECTS (Psychological): Addiction Paranoia Irritability Restlessness Auditory hallucinations Mood disturbances Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: COCAINE
SHORT TERM EFFECTS: Confusion Sleep problems Anxiety Teeth clenching Addiction Paranoia Nausea Chills and sweating Panic, depression, and paranoia. Sleep problems Reduced appetite Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: ECSTACY
LONG TERM EFFECTS: Dehydration Hypertension Hyperthermia Heart failure Kidney failure Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: ECSTACY
SHORT TERM EFFECTS: Distorted perception (sights, sounds, time, touch) Problems with memory and learning Loss of coordination Trouble with thinking and problem-solving Increased heart rate reduced blood pressure Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: MARIJUANA
LONG TERM EFFECTS: Hallucinations Delusions Impaired memory Disorientation Daily cough and phlegm production More frequent acute chest illnesses Increased risk of lung infections Obstructed airways Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: MARIJUANA
Marijuana Delta-9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC ) -extracted from the Cannabis Sativa plant
LONG TERM EFFECTS: Slurred speech Slow gait Constricted pupils Droopy eyelids Impaired night vision Respiratory depression or failure Dry itching skin Skin infections Increased risk of exposure to HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases if injected. Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: HEROIN
Effects of ALCOHOL : In LOW DOSES, alcohol produces: a relaxing effect reduces tension lowers inhibitions impairs concentration slows reflexes impairs reaction time reduces coordination
Effects of ALCOHOL: In MEDIUM DOSES, alcohol produces: slur speech cause drowsiness alter emotions In HIGH DOSES, alcohol produces: vomiting breathing difficulties unconsciousness coma
Effects of NICOTINE: Tobacco contains nicotine. Nicotine is a drug. Therefore, when people smoke or chew tobacco, they are using a drug. Smoking can be stimulating or relaxing - it depends on a person's mood and dosage of nicotine. The rapid effects of nicotine include: Increases in blood pressure and heart rate Faster respiration Constriction of arteries Stimulation of the central nervous system.
Effects of NICOTINE: Long Term Effects: increases the chances of cancer and results in addiction and dependence. It is clear though, that nicotine is one of the most addicting substances known...just ask anyone who has tried to quit smoking. Common withdrawal symptoms in people who are trying to "kick the habit" of tobacco include: Anxiety Depression Headaches Fatigue
Effects of NICOTINE: HEALTHY LUNGS UNHEALTHY LUNGS
Effects of CAFFEINE: Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. In moderate doses, caffeine can: increase alertness reduce fine motor coordination cause insomnia cause headaches, nervousness and dizziness
Effects of CAFFEINE: Some studies show that caffeine causes physical dependence. One way to tell if someone "needs" that cup of coffee or bottle of Coke is to take it away from them and then see if they have any withdrawal symptoms. Typical withdrawal symptoms associated with caffeine are headache, fatigue and muscle pain. These symptoms can occur within 24 hours after the last dose of caffeine. One study has stated that the minimum consumption of caffeine for physical dependence is 4 cups of coffee per day. Other studies say that a few more cups of coffee are needed to develop dependence.
SHORT TERM EFFECTS: Heightened attention and energy Excessive talking Euphoria Decreased fatigue Increased activity Increased sexuality Decreased appetite Increased respiration Hyperthermia, occasionally leading to convulsions and lethal levels. Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: SHABU
LONG TERM EFFECTS: Dependence Anxiety Confusion insomnia Addiction psychosis Paranoia Hallucinations (visual and auditory) Mood disturbances Repetitive motor activity Stroke Weight loss Violent behavior (homicidal or suicidal thoughts) Disturbed sleep patterns decreased sleep needs Disinterest in usual social interactions, sex and food Inflammation of the heart lining Kinds of Drugs and its Effects: SHABU
Inhalants Volatile Solvents -paint thinner, dry-cleaning fluids, degreasers, gasoline, glue, correction fluid, and felt-tip marker fluid. Aerosol -spray paint, deodorant, hair spray, vegetable oil spray for cooking, and fabric protector spray. Gases - ether, chloroform, halothane, and nitrous oxide, commonly called "laughing gas.“ Nitrites - cyclohexyl nitrite, isoamyl (amyl) nitrite, and isobutyl (butyl) nitrite.
Neurons Drugs targeting the neurotransmitter of such systems affect the whole system; this fact explains the complexity of action of some drugs.
How we get addicted to drugs: The master brain chemical of addiction Dopamine -transmits all of the pleasure signals Drugs modify activity of various brain chemicals that cross pathways in the brain; dopamine could be the end result of all the pathways Dopamine overload (esp. feelings of euphoria and bliss )
Craving behavior response can motivate substance abuse When drug addict attempts to stop using the drugs will demand more of the drug to produce metabolites Drug addict is caught in a trap Appears inescapable unless an effective drug addiction treatment handles the condition.
Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine It is responsible for much of the stimulation of muscles, including the muscles of the gastro-intestinal system. It is also found in sensory neurons and in the autonomic nervous system, and has a part in scheduling REM (dream) sleep. Dopamine Dopamine has been found to have relatively little to do with the pleasures of eating. Drugs like cocaine, opium, heroin, and alcohol increase the levels of dopamine, as does nicotine. Endorphin It is involved in pain reduction and pleasure, and the opioid drugs work by attaching to endorphin's receptor sites. It is also the neurotransmitter that allows bears and other animals to hibernate.
Serotonin Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that has been found to be intimately involved in emotion and mood. Too little serotonin has been shown to lead to depression, problems with anger control, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and suicide. Too little also leads to an increased appetite for carbohydrates (starchy foods) and trouble sleeping, which are also associated with depression and other emotional disorders. Serotonin also plays a role in perception.
F amily Be involved and open with your family! Though adolescence stage can be a shaky stage between teens and their parents, it's very important to maintain your communication and connection with them.
Family involvement can help you handle temptations to use alcohol, cigarettes and drugs that you might encounter. How’s your relationship with your family?
F riends Now, think of your friends. Think of the activities that you do together. Are these activities beneficial to you or not? What kind of friends do you have?
Teens would most likely try using drugs when they're around other teens who take drugs. Peer pressure; but with the right kind of friends, it's most likely that you will not encounter such. Our friends can have the greatest influence in our choices, the way we think and in our activities. Choose your friends!
P assion Be active. Know your passions and do them! Find alternatives. Some teens use drugs because of boredom and it's something to do. Think of your talents, skills and abilities. Are they being used and developed? What can you do to improve on your abilities?
Get involved in other activities. -Join co-curricular organizations. -Varsity teams, extra-curricular organizations (dance, singing and theater organizations) Involvement in these organizations will not only keep you busy but will also help you develop your personality, talents and skills. Find your passion and do it!
G oals Set your GOALS! -Do you have goals in your life? -(Family, Academics, Others..) -What are they? -Write them down!
Goals can serve as motivations to be busy and to stay committed towards their accomplishment! Goals will keep you focused in attaining them, minimizing the possibilities of being distracted along the way. Set your goals, move and work for them!
A wareness The key is awareness! Research more on the effects of drug addiction on your physical and mental state. You'll gain knowledge that will help you decide about this matter in the future. Be aware and keep learning!
S hare SHARE WHAT YOU'VE LEARNED! Talk and discuss the information that you have gained to your classmates and friends! Form a group among your peers which will aim to educate people about drugs, drug addiction and its effects. Be concerned and responsible. Be an agent of drug usage prevention. Share your knowledge, time and talents!
FF P GAS F AMILY F RIENDS P ASSIONS G OALS A WARENESS S HARE