2 I. Introductory TermsScience: An organized way of using evidence, based on observations, to learn about the natural world.Observations: Information gathered using the senses.1.Quantitative- involves numbers or measurements2. Qualitative-involves characteristics or descriptions not easily measured or counted.
3 C. Biology: The study of life (living things) D. Organism: a complete individual living thing1.Examples: spider, tree, etc.
4 II. Characteristics of living things Living things are Madeup of units called cellsCell = basic unit of structure and function in all living thingsMulticellular = many cellsUnicellular = 1 cell (like bacteria)
5 Living things Reproduce Asexual – 1 parent, no joining of sex cells or DNASexual – usually 2 parents, sex cells joined and DNA combined
6 Living things Grow & develop Cell divisionCell enlargementCell specializationLiving things Respond to stimuli
7 E.Living things Use energy Autotroph: make own food (plants)Heterotroph: eat somethingMetabolism: chemical reactions that build up or break down materials
8 Living things Maintain homeostasis Regulation of an organism’s internal environmentOptimizes conditions for metabolism
9 Living things display organization Cell structures, cells, tissues, and organs work together to support the organism
10 Levels of Organization Cellular OrganizationcellsorganellesmoleculesatomsThe cell is thebasic unit of life.
11 Levels of Organization Organismal Levelorganismorgan systemsorganstissues
12 Levels of Organization Population Levelecosystemcommunityspeciespopulation
13 Living things evolve over time Adaptation: an inherited characteristic that results from changes to a species over time, usually something that helps them survive
15 III. The Scientific Method - logical and organized methods of scientific study. SCHyTCo!!
16 State the problemThe problem must specify how the results can be measuredFormat: What effect does the Independent (manipulated) Variable have on Dependant (responding) Variable?IV: The variable being testedDV: results of experiment, what you will be measuring.
17 Good or bad example?How does drinking pop affect concentration?Better --> How does drinking mountain dew affect concentration in class?Best --> How does drinking 1 can of mountain dew affect performance on a memory test?
18 Collect Background Info – research your problem. What things would you research for the mountain dew example?Ex. Amount of caffeine, how caffeine works, how memory works, etc.
19 Hypothesis = possible solution to problem; an educated guess based on background information Ex: scores on memory tests will be lower after drinking mountain dew
20 Test the hypothesis (experiment) Controlled experiment – all conditions the same except one variableExperimental group – group exposed to the variableControl group – not exposed to the variable, used as a comparisonNumber of trials: how many times the experiment is repeated
22 ConclusionsData – scientific facts collected during experimentTables, graphs, chartsStatistics – math that evaluates dataEx. Average growth rate of frogs during development
23 DefinitionsTheoryan explanation of how a specific natural phenomenon occurstested with repeated experiments and observations and found always to work
24 Law: a rule that describes, but doesn’t explain, a pattern in nature and predicts what will happen under specific conditions
25 Charles DarwinServed as naturalist on mapping expedition around coastal South America.Used many observations to develop his ideasProposed that evolution occurs bynatural selection
26 Darwin’s Evidence Similarity of related species - Darwin noticed variations in related species living in different locations
27 Darwin’s Evidence - Darwin realized that not all members of a population survive and reproduce.natural selection: individuals with superior physical or behavioral characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduceevolution: modification of a species over generations
28 Post-Darwin Evolution Evidence Fossil recordMechanisms of heredityComparative anatomyMolecular evidence