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SHRTN Continence CoP Long Term Care Homes-IC3 Project West Park Healthcare Centre Appendix G: Continence Promotion and Management June 16, 2010 Barbara.

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Presentation on theme: "SHRTN Continence CoP Long Term Care Homes-IC3 Project West Park Healthcare Centre Appendix G: Continence Promotion and Management June 16, 2010 Barbara."— Presentation transcript:

1 SHRTN Continence CoP Long Term Care Homes-IC3 Project West Park Healthcare Centre Appendix G: Continence Promotion and Management June 16, 2010 Barbara Cowie (Cassel), RN, BScN, MN, GNC(C) Advanced Practice Nurse Amputee Rehabilitation and Complex Continuing Care Nurse Continence Advisor West Park Healthcare Centre (4532)

2 Presentation Overview Prevalence Impact Assessment Treatment Resources Barriers Continence care work at West Park

3 What is incontinence? It has been defined by the International Continence Society as: a condition where involuntary loss of urine is a social or hygienic problem (ICS, 1987)

4 Prevalence 5 to 10 % in the Community 10 to 20 % in Acute Care 50 to 70 % of Complex Continuing Care  1 in 4 women  1 in 10 men

5 An Important Problem UI is a strong predictor of functional recovery (Brittain 2001) Discharge destination - institution vs. community/home (Brittain 2001; Patel et al., 2001) Impact on quality of life for the individual and family Resumption of social participation (Gallagher 1998)  Low self-esteem  Social isolation  Depression

6 Requirements of Continence Aware of urge to void Able to get to the bathroom Able to suppress the urge until you reach the bathroom Able to void when you get there

7 West Park Healthcare Centre 6 Bladder filling First sensation to void Normal desire to void Emptying phase Bladder pressure Storage phase Normal Micturition Cycle Detrusor muscle Detrusor muscleDetrusor muscleDetrusor muscle relaxesrelaxedcontractsrelaxes ++++ Urethral Urethral sphincter sphincter sphincter relaxessphincter tone contracts (voluntary control)tone ++++ Pelvic floorPelvic floorPelvic floorPelvic floor tonecontractsrelaxestone MICTURITION

8 West Park Healthcare Centre 7 Types of UI Stress Functional Overflow Urge (OAB)

9 West Park Healthcare Centre 8 Stress Incontinence  loss of urine with a sudden increase in intra- abdominal pressure (e.g. coughing, sneezing, exercise)  most common in women  sometimes occurs in men following prostate surgery

10 West Park Healthcare Centre 9 Structure of the Female Lower Urinary Tract Ureter Detrusor smooth muscle Mucosa Trigone External urethral sphincter Pelvic floor (striated muscle) Proximal smooth muscle sphincteric mechanism urethra Outer peritoneal coat

11 West Park Healthcare Centre 10 Urogenital Changes Bladder Urgency Frequency Recurrent UTI Vagina Dryness Painful intercourse Recurrent infection

12 West Park Healthcare Centre 11 Pelvic Floor

13 West Park Healthcare Centre 12 Pelvic Floor Decent

14 West Park Healthcare Centre 13 Structure of the Male Lower Urinary Tract Prostate gland Ureter Detrusor smooth muscle Mucosa Trigone External urethral sphincter Pelvic floor (striated muscle) Proximal smooth muscle sphincteric mechanism urethra Outer peritoneal coat

15 West Park Healthcare Centre 14 Urge Incontinence (overactive bladder)  loss of urine with a strong unstoppable urge to urinate  usually associated with frequent urination during the day and night  common in women and men  sometimes referred to as an overactive bladder

16 West Park Healthcare Centre 15 Overflow Incontinence  bladder is full at all times and leaks at any time, day or night  usually associated with symptoms of slow stream and difficulty urinating  more common in men as a result of the enlargement of the prostate gland

17 West Park Healthcare Centre 16 Functional Incontinence  patient either has decreased mental ability (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease)  or decreased physical ability (e.g. arthritis) and is unable to make it to the bathroom in time

18 West Park Healthcare Centre 17 DISAPPEAR – Transient Causes of UI DDelirium IIntake of fluid SStool impaction AAtrophic changes/urethritis PPsychological problems PPharmaceuticals that can contribute to incontinence EExcess urine output AAbnormal lab values RRestricted mobility Whytock, S (Chapter 3) Promoting Continence Care, A Bladder and Bowel Handbook for Care Providers. Skelly J, Carr M, Cassel B, Robbs L, Whytock S, Edited by Paula Eyles 2006

19 Age Related Factors Increased  Detrusor Overactivity  Nocturnal urine output  BPH  PVR (<100 ml)  Bacteruria (20%) Decreased  Bladder Contractility  Bladder Sensation  Sphincter Strength (F) Unchanged  Bladder Capacity  Bladder Compliance

20 West Park Healthcare Centre 19 Structured Assessment Specialist professional structured assessment:  Incontinence history (premorbid urinary incontinence)  Fluid Intake  Bowel elimination history  Medical History  Medications  Functional Ability A bladder diary is helpful with identifying voiding frequency, voided volumes and frequency of incontinence Focused physical evaluation (pelvic exam for women / PVR bladder scan / Urine dipstick) Simple tests The assessment may take 2 to 3 sessions

21 West Park Healthcare Centre 20 Incontinence History Assessment resources: Link to Urinary Continence Assessment Tool FINAL_continence_chart.pdf Promoting Continence Care, A Bladder and Bowel Handbook for Care Providers. Skelly J, Carr M, Cassel B, Robbs L, Whytock S, Edited by Paula Eyles 2006 Onset Duration Daytime / Nighttime Accidents Stress loss Urge loss Aware of loss

22 Impact of cognitive impairment on ability to be continent ability to follow and understand prompts or cues ability to interact with others ability to complete self care tasks social awareness

23 Interpretation recognition recall Impact on continence identifying the urge to void remembering how to respond locating the toilet

24 Interaction comprehension expression Impact on Continence understanding reminders asking for assistance

25 Self Care voluntary and purposeful movement spatial orientation Impact on Continence removing clothing sitting on the toilet

26 Social attention deficits conversation Impact on continence remembering how to respond motivation to be continent

27 Voiding Record Time and amount of: –fluid intake –urine voided –incontinence –For 4 or 5 days

28 Urology Consult Cystoscopy performed by a physician when the condition cannot be completely diagnosed by simpler, less invasive tests Urodynamics used to assess the function of the bladder and urethra used to determine the problem in more complicated situations often done in conjunction with a cystoscopy

29 Contributing Factors Urinary Tract Infections Fluid Intake Caffeine / Alcohol Intake Constipation Medications Weight Mobility Environmental Factors Cognitive Impairment Childbirth Pelvic muscle tone Atrophic Changes It is important to determine the contributing factors, this will lead logically to intervention planning.

30 West Park Healthcare Centre 29 Making the “leap” from assessment to treatment  So what do you do with all this information you have gathered?  The assessment follows a logical path to help you to think about the patient’s problem of UI

31 West Park Healthcare Centre 30 Conservative Management  client focused  using education  behavior modification  problem solving strategies

32 West Park Healthcare Centre 31 Treatment Options Surgery BehaviouralMedication Most cases of UI can be effectively managed with conservative approaches.

33 West Park Healthcare Centre 32 ISC Behavior modification Urge Suppression Kegal Exercises Pessaries Toileting Functional Overflow Urge Stress Conservative Treatment Options

34 West Park Healthcare Centre 33 Preventing Urinary Tract Infections drink extra fluids like water There is some evidence to show that use of cranberry juice or capsules can prevent UTI’s in women  Cochrane Reviews

35 West Park Healthcare Centre 34 Personal Care Wash and wipe from the front to the back Wash with warm water and pat or blow dry No soap Use a product that dosen’t affect vaginal pH

36 West Park Healthcare Centre 35  tablet, patch, ring or cream  works by improving the tissues of the vagina and urethra in post-menopausal women  risks concerns  breast cancer  uterine cancer Contributing Factor - Loss of Estrogen

37 West Park Healthcare Centre 36 Increase intake of healthy fluids, especially water Try adding a slice of lemon or a sprig of mint to the water Offering fluid frequently or readily accessible Increase Water Intake

38 West Park Healthcare Centre 37 slowly cut down on the amount of caffeine to 1-2 cups a day (1cup=250ml) slowly switch to decaffeinated beverages (eg. decaffeinated tea, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine-free beverages) read labels closely (eg. green tea is caffeinated) Reduce - Caffeine

39 West Park Healthcare Centre 38 Managing Constipation Provide opportunities for exercise everyday Offer plenty of “healthy” fluid (warm water may stimulate the bowel) Introduce gradually, foods high in fibre such as bran,oatmeal, whole wheat, green leafy vegetables Avoid using laxatives on a regular basis

40 West Park Healthcare Centre 39 Limited Mobility Ensure a toilet is close by (a bedside commode or bedpan) Offer regular timed trips to the washroom Keep walking aide near (cane, crutches, or walker) Provide clothing that can be easily removed

41 West Park Healthcare Centre 40 Developing Best Practice Guidelines

42 West Park Healthcare Centre 41 It has been shown to decrease the number of incontinent episodes per day and increase the number of continent voids (A level evidence) It can be used with persons who have physical or mental impairments or little ability to determine how best to meet their needs The identification of individual voiding patterns (individualized toileting) rather than routine toileting (e.g. q2h) can promote the highest level of success with toileting Prompted Voiding

43 West Park Healthcare Centre 42 3-Day Voiding Record  3-day voiding record recommended  Identify patterns of voiding  Use to monitor interventions  Motivates staff & residents

44 West Park Healthcare Centre 43 Prompted Voiding It aims to improve bladder control for people with or without dementia using verbal prompts and positive reinforcement.

45 West Park Healthcare Centre 44 Prompted Voiding Intervention There are three primary behaviours that the caregiver uses each time PV is initiated –Monitoring –Prompting –Praising

46 West Park Healthcare Centre 45 Environment Provide visual cues in the environment to promote desired toileting behaviour

47 West Park Healthcare Centre 46 Using the right product

48 West Park Healthcare Centre 47 Resources Clinical Practice Guidelines for Urinary Continence Management of Stroke Survivors in Acute and Rehabilitation Settings, The Ottawa Hospital, 2008 Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario (2006). Self-Learning Package: Continence Care Education. Toronto, Canada: Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario. Hospital Report Research Collaborative, IC5 Improving Continence Care in Complex Continuing Care  Facilitation using Quality Improvement Methodology Incontinence: A Canadian Perspective A comprehensive look at incontinence in Canada A 37 page burden of illness paper commissioned by TCCF in 2007

49 West Park Healthcare Centre 48 Comments? Feedback?


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