Presentation on theme: "Sophie Gosselin Emergency Medicine McGill Food supplements in the athlete."— Presentation transcript:
Sophie Gosselin Emergency Medicine McGill Food supplements in the athlete
Objectives to better understand the pharmacology of the most popular molecules. know the most common and lethal adverse reactions associated with their use. to determine when ED physicians should –ask about them –suspect as potential cause for symptoms –suggest referral for nutritional counselling.
Food supplements Economic market of several billions of USD. Expansion in the last 5 years –Internet –Lack of regulation –Target group vulnerability
Food supplements Target group –Athletes –Teenagers Body image Peer pressure Unsupervised Unrealistic objectives about training
Food supplements Ergogenic aid : any means of enhancing energy utilization including energy production, control, and efficiency. –Stimulants ; amphetamines, ephedrine, caffeine –Reduce tremor and HR ; Beta blockers –Bodyweight gain or loss ; AAS, GH, B2 agonists, diuretics Strategy is to increase energy consumption, metabolism while decreasing adipose tissue formation to the benefit of squeletal muscle
Creatine Formed in kidney, rate of 2 g/day Meat and fish Typical diet 1-2 g per day 95% in muscles (1/3 free Cr, 2/3 PCr) Irreversible conversion to creatinine
Creatine Not for aerobic activities Acute side effects: –Gastrointestinal aches –Muscle cramping ( H2O retention in fibers) –No long term side effect if therapeutic doses and schedules Case reports of rhabdomyolysis or quadriceps compartment syndrome after use.
Anabolic steroids mid 1950’s strenght enhancing properties of testoterone. Minimizing androgenic effect while preserving anabolic ones. No synthetic molecule dissociating two properties Two categories IM vs PO group. Androstenedione most popular now. DHEA banned by FDA in 1996 –Media attention cause manufacturers to sell it as nutritional aid rather than therapeutic drug. –Wild yams sold in health food stores.
Androstenedione Endogenously produced Prohormones
Androstenedione Ergogenic effects –Unclear rate of conversion to Testosterone when PO –Studies 300 mg/d users ingests 2-3 times this dose Anabolic effects –Induces protein synthesis –Binding to cell cytoplasm –Studies at best weak agents Androgenic effects –Male differenciation in utero –Maturation of external genitalia –Secondary sex characteristics –Regulation sperm production
Androstenedione Data on side effect in users is minimal. Some suggest aromatization to estrogen when PO. Unclear if produces the side effect of other AAS –Hepatic failure –Hepatocellular carcinoma –Testicular atrophy –Azoospermia –Because no alpha 1 7 alkylation –No increase LFT’s
Anabolic steroids Cardiovascular –Sudden death, AMI, cardiac hypertrophy Atherogenic model lipoprotein Thrombosis model clotting factors Vasospasm model vascular nitric oxide system Decrease HDL 53%, increase LDL 36% Increase fibrosis in myocytes Endocrine –Feedback inhibition of LH –Women and children most at risk
Anabolic steroids Musculoskeletal –Growth spurt of adolescence –Premature epiphyseal plate fusion and short stature –Predisposition to tendons rupture with local injections –Abnormal collagen fibers formation (type III) tendinitis Metabolic –Abolish a negative nitrogen balance –Promoting retention Na, K, Po4 –Decreased urinary excretion of Ca Psychiatric –Agressivity, mood swings, cognitive impairments
Anabolic steroids DHEA Few sides effects reporte Irreversible virilization of women, hirsutism, voice deepening, hair loss Irreversible gynecomastia Increase risk of uterine and prostate cancer that accompagnies unopposed elevation in testosterone or estrogen.
Clenbuterol Systemic B2 agonist (stimulant) Reduce fatigue, sensitivity to pain, bronchospasms, tremors Increase alertness, reaction time, concentration, endurance, Promotes muscle growth Large reduction in body fat
Clenbuterol Stimulate protein deposition in muscles by 20% Reduces glycogen and body fat deposition Skeletal muscles: –Increases glycolytic capacity –Induces a true hypertrophy vs hyperplasia –Shift fiber type I (slow twitch) to II (fast)
Clenbuterol Approved in Europe, Canada for livestock. Most symtoms are tachycardia, tremors, headaches, dizziness, nausea, fever. Case report of ventricular arrhythmias but patient also undergoing hypocaloric diet.
Amino-acids The protein shake Daily requirement 0.8g/kg/d Some benefit from extra 0,5g/kg/d Beta hydroxy beta methyl butyrate Glutamine L-Carnitine Anticatabolic effects
Amino-acids No studies have shown any benefit No major side effect No well designed studies either
GHB Popular in USA as liquid X Release GH and burn fat during periods of inactivity, such as sleep. Investigated to treat EtOH WD in Europe Use is illicit Potentiates dopamine R in brain and GABA R
GHB Side effects: –related to decrease LOC –absences types seizures. OD setting: –Seizures –Respiratory depression –Exacerbation with Et-OH –No response with naloxone –Flumazenil in animals studies
Chromium picolinate Essential trace element Low GI absorption Popularity after found increase chromium loss during exercice Claims it increases glycogen synthesis Enhances action of insulin Increase incorporation of AA in muscles
Chromium picolinate Major side effects Use should be discouraged Part of many “combo products” Anabolic steroid effect at dose of 200ug/day Anecdotal report of anemia, cognitive impairment Interstitial nephritis. Gastritis and GI intolerance if – > 200 ug/d – more than one month “ treatment”
Route of administration PO IM SC for EPO Needle sharing –Across users –Across times
Available products Different brands Differents dosages Purity issues Combinations within same product
Drug abuse Users are adolescent Increased risk of engaging in other drug use –marijuana –Et-Oh –Smoking –IV drug use
Possible scenarios Gastrointestinal symptoms MSK: tendinitis, myalgias Renal failure Chest pain Yearly “medicals” in sports clinics. Parallel with Viagra, nitrates and chest pain
Conclusion Likely increase in incidence. Easy to get, unregulated Mosty long term adverse effects Symptoms that are frequent chief complaints in our ED. We might not know unless we ask Fragile, “uneducated”, unsupervised clientele.