How do ergogenic aids function? By improving the capacity of the muscles and/or the oxygen transport and utilization systems to do work By removing or reducing inhibitory mechanisms to allow the use of previously untapped reserves
What are some side-effects of amphetamine use? Restlessness Tremor Irritability Confusion Psychotic behavior Vomiting Diarrhea Abdominal cramps Headaches Elevated heart rate Hypertension Severe weight loss Hallucinations Paranoia
How much caffeine is allowable under IOC regulations? The IOC allows concentrations of caffeine in urine up to 12 micrograms per milliliter. Six to eight cups of coffee could exceed the legal limit.
Why do laboratory studies of anabolic steroid use show almost no effect on strength or weight, yet athletes claim otherwise? Athletes report taking doses that are 10 to 100 times those used therapeutically. At these levels, there’s no doubt that steroids increase muscle mass and strength.
What should coaches look for as indicators of possible steroid use? Large, rapid increases in body weight and muscle mass
How does growth hormone work to increase muscle mass? It works directly by increasing amino acid transport and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and indirectly by stimulating the production of insulin-like growth factor.
How does bicarbonate loading affect athletic performance? Sodium bicarbonate reduces the fatigue-causing effects of lactic acid buildup during moderate to high-intensity physical activity.
What are some of the effects of creatine supplementation? Improved anaerobic capabilities Improved body composition Improved muscular strength Increased body weight Increased fat-free weight Increased muscle mass
Name some ergogenic aids that have been banned by the IOC. Amphetamines Caffeine (over 12 micrograms/mL) Anabolic steroids Androstenedione DHEA Growth hormone Blood doping Erythropoietin
Describe the makeup of Sherman’s modified carbohydrate loading diet. 50 percent carbohydrate for the first three days and 70 percent for the last three.
N (up to 12 micrograms /mL) Irritability, restlessness, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety, heart arrhythmias, dehydration, stomach upset Improve endurance in cycling, running, and swimming Improves enduranceCaffeine YRestlessness, elevated heart rate, hypertension, weight loss, psychotic behavior, hallucinations Conflicting resultsImprove swimming, running, weight throwing performance, reaction time, and balance Amphetamines YEnlarged heart, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis Little evidence availableIncreases muscle size and strength, improves performance Growth hormone YLiver dysfunction, liver cancer, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, prostate cancer, depressed immune function Modest effect on strength and body weight, probably due to low clinical doses Increase strength, muscle mass, body weight, red blood cells Anabolic steroids BannedMajor side-effectsResearch-proven effectAnecdotal effectAid NNo evidence to indicate health risks Increases strength, delays onset of fatigue, increases body weight, fat-free weight, and muscle mass Delays onset of fatigueCreatine NGastrointestinal distress, diarrhea. Excessive doses: heart arrhythmias, cardiac arrest Increases performance in sprint running, swimming, rowing, activities that rely heavily on anaerobic glycolysis for ATP production Reduces lactic acid buildup that causes fatigue Sodium bicarbonate
NNoneEnhances endurance performance Carbohydrate loading YElevated blood pressure, flu- like symptoms, possible heart attack, stroke, pulmonary edema Enhances endurance performance Erythropoietin YNone reportedEnhances endurance performance Blood doping NNone reportedConflicting resultsEnhances endurance performance Phosphate loading NMore research neededIncreases isometric strength, concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque, and fat-free weight Increases muscle mass and strength and decreases fat weight HMB NHigh doses: Gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea High doses improve submaximal endurance performance Improves performance in endurance activities, weight loss, lowers cholesterol Pyruvate AidAnecdotal effectResearch-proven effectMajor side-effectsBanned
The Physician and Sports Medicine: Ergogenic Aids www.physsportsmed.com/issues/1997/04apr/eichner.htm NIDA Research Report—Steroid Abuse and Addiction www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Steroids/ AnabolicSteroids.html Creatine Supplementation www.rice.edu/~jenky/sports/creatine.html Sports Science Creatine Review www.sportsci.org/traintech/creatine/rbk.html NCAA Drug Testing www.ncaa.org/sports_sciences/drugtesting/