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Chapter 16 Lecture © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Addiction and Substance Abuse.

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1 Chapter 16 Lecture © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Addiction and Substance Abuse

2 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Define substance abuse and addiction Outline the acute effects of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the body List several guidelines that can be used to maintain control over alcohol use Outline the behavioral and physiological effects of alcohol as a function of the level of alcohol in the blood Discuss the long-term health consequences of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use Describe the addictive properties of tobacco and the impact of prolonged tobacco use on health Describe the acute effects of caffeine on the body Outline products that contain caffeine and list the pros and cons of caffeine use Identify ways to reduce your risk of drug use

3 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Addiction? Habitual psychological/physical dependence on substance/practice beyond voluntary control Associated with the traits of –Reinforcement leading to craving –Loss of control –Escalation –Negative outcomes –Denial

4 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Addiction? (cont.) Addiction can involve a substance and/or behavior –Substances: drugs, alcohol, tobacco –Behaviors: gambling, Internet usage, pornography, sex, gaming, eating, shoplifting, or exercising Addiction can be physical and/or psychological –Chemical dependence –Withdrawal symptoms –Tolerance

5 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Causes of Addiction Numerous Potential Causes Types of drug used Genetics Brain chemistry Psychological makeup Social factors Personality characteristics Heredity

7 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Substance Abuse Use of illegal or inappropriate use of legal drugs to produce pleasure, to alleviate stress, or to alter/avoid reality Drug use interferes with other areas of one's life, such as grades, work, relationships, or legal issues Commonly Abused Substances Alcohol Illicit drugs, including –marijuana, cocaine, heroin –hallucinogens –inhalants –tranquilizers –stimulants –sedatives

8 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Psychoactive Drugs User experiences altered state of consciousness Examples –Marijuana (stimulant) –Cocaine (powerful stimulant) –"Club drugs" – Ecstasy, LSD, GHB, methamphetamine (addictive stimulant) –Prescription drugs – OxyContin –Over-the-counter drugs—cough suppressants and expectorants

9 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Health Effects of Psychoactive Drugs Long-term marijuana use –Psychological dependence/lung damage Long-term cocaine use –Cardiovascular effects, respiratory effects, neurological effects, GI problems Long-term methamphetamine use –Paranoia, aggressiveness, extreme anorexia, memory loss, hallucinations, delusions, and dental problems Drug use/abuse by pregnant women = serious health effects on developing fetus

10 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Alcohol Most widely used recreational drug in United States and most popular on college campuses 63% of college students use alcohol and 31% abuse it Central nervous system depressant –Impaired vision, slowed reaction time, impaired motor coordination Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) determines extent of central nervous system depression BAC determined by amount of alcohol consumed, and rate alcohol metabolized by body

11 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. BAC Chart

12 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Ethyl alcohol is the psychoactive ingredient in all alcoholic beverages. A standard drink is defined as a 12-ounce beer, a 1.5-ounce cocktail drink, or a 5-ounce glass of wine. Each of these contains approximately 0.6 ounce of ethyl alcohol. Standard Alcoholic Drink Sizes

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14 Alcohol Abuse/Addiction Alcohol Abuse Four criteria of abuse –Alcohol use in hazardous situations –Alcohol-related school problems –Recurrent interpersonal problems –Recurrent legal problems Alcohol Addiction (alcoholism) Alcohol dependence Involves craving alcohol/not being able to control impulse to drink Binge drinking

15 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of Alcohol Abuse Liver disease (e.g., cirrhosis) = liver failure/death Damage to central nervous system = brain damage Increased risk for cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, stomach, mouth, tongue, and liver During pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome/other birth defects Physical, behavioral, and learning problems See Lab 16.1: Alcohol Abuse Inventory

16 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Tobacco Contains nicotine: most heavily used addictive drug in United States Cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco Nicotine addiction –Provides immediate "psychological kick" –Causes withdrawal symptoms Secondhand smoke contains toxic chemicals Health Effects of Tobacco Use Tobacco smoking: leading cause of death in United States, accounting for one in five deaths per year Increases cancer risk: lung, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, and kidney Woman smokers: likely to lose baby during pregnancy and/or to have low birth weight babies See Lab 16.2: Tobacco Usage Inventory

17 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Caffeine Substance in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and certain medications Stimulates central nervous system (CNS) within 15 minutes Moderate doses (2–4 cups of coffee) increases alertness/provide an energy boost Large doses = restlessness and irritability –insomnia, headaches, and abnormal heart rhythms Creates psychological dependence Withdrawal symptoms = headache, muscle pain, and fatigue

18 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Anabolic Steroids Synthetic male sex hormones (e.g. testosterone) Available by prescription (tablet or ointment) Health Effects –Psychological effects: aggressiveness, uncontrolled bouts of anger ("roid rage"), depression –Liver cysts and cancer –Increased blood cholesterol, increased blood clotting –Hypertension, reduced sperm count, testicular shrinkage, impotence –Irreversible breast enlargement in men, and development of masculine characteristics in women

19 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Drug Abuse Avoidance Strategies Find productive ways to increase self-esteem Learn and practice stress-coping techniques Develop varied interests Practice assertiveness

20 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary Alcohol, nicotine (tobacco products), marijuana, and cocaine are the most widely used and abused drugs in the United States Alcohol is the single most common recreational drug used in the United States Use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine increases your risk of accidents, and prolonged use may result in psychological dependence, physical addiction, and damaged health

21 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary (cont.) Tobacco use can lead to an addiction to nicotine and prolonged use leads to increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and cancer Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant found in common foods and beverages. It is currently unclear whether chronic consumption is a significant health risk Long-term use of anabolic steroids can cause psychological and physiological side effects Decrease your risk of abusing drugs by increasing your self-esteem, learning how to cope with stress, developing numerous interests, and practicing assertiveness

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