Presentation on theme: "Energy Drinks Martin Bushman Chemical Engineering Senior University of Wisconsin-Madison CBE 555 April 25, 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Drinks Martin Bushman Chemical Engineering Senior University of Wisconsin-Madison CBE 555 April 25, 2011
Outline Background Manufacturing What’s in Energy Drinks? Health Effects Marketing Risks and Legal Issues Alternatives
Claims “Redbull gives you wings.” “Everlast Improves performance, increases concentration, improves reaction speed, increases metabolism.” “ROCKSTAR is scientifically formulated to provide an incredible energy boost for those who lead active and exhausting lifestyles–from athletes to rock stars.”
History of Energy Drinks Moxie, a Crème Soda invented in 1876, is now a synonym for energy. Coca-Cola put 9mg of cocaine in its product in 1886 Lucozade originated in Newcastle, UK, in 1927, as a source of energy, electrolytes, and refreshment for hospital patients. Lipovitan, released in 1962, began the energy drink craze in Japan. Jolt Cola, released in the US in 1985, pioneered a marketing strategy which is still in use by energy drink marketers. Red Bull appeared in the US in 1997, forerunner to Amp (2001), Rockstar (2001), Monster (2002), Full Throttle (2004), et al. Wave of popularity with energy shots after the introduction of 5 Hour Energy in The alcoholic energy drink craze lasted from 2002 with Sparks to 2010 with an FDA ban on adding caffeine to alcoholic beverages.
Consumption In North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily. Worldwide annual caffeine consumption is estimated at 120,000 tons. Energy drinks are a $4.8 billion/year industry (400% growth since 2003) 2008 survey of teenagers indicated 35% use energy drinks, compared with 19% in The “healthy” alternative to soft drinks.
Energy Drink Market “Twelve to nineteen-year-old boys consume thirty-four teaspoons of sugar a day in their diet, and about half of that comes from soft drinks.”
Carbonation Some energy drinks are carbonated Myth: Calcium absorption and skeletal effects Diuretic effects leach calcium from the body Myth: Not the carbonate ion, but the phospates that cause bone/tooth degradation Again, the experiments don’t agree with this hypothesis. Conclusion: carbonated water has same effects as sparkling water.
What’s in Energy Drinks— Caffeine Stimulant Found naturally – natural plant pesticide Metabolized in the liver Antagonist of Adenosine Moderate use: mg daily Heavy use: mg+
Guarana Similar effects as Caffeine Extract of the berry of the Guarana plant Effects: quickens perceptions delays sleep Increase effectiveness in endurance based activities hangover recovery aid impaired appetite/upset stomach diuretic increases blood pressure, heart rate Jitters, tremors Studies show cognitive and memory benefits in low doses.
Taurine Amino acid that naturally occurs in food Necessary for skeletal muscle function Benefits for regulating blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease One study suggested physical activity benefits. No studies capable of demonstrating cognitive performance claim. Energy drinks contain significant amounts Up to 3000mg is deemed safe Little is known about long term use.
Ginseng “Panacea” “Adaptogen” Effects: Stress reduction Quality of life, physical stamina improvement No effect on memory A number of side effects Present in too low dosage in energy drinks to have any medicinal benefit May enhance the effect of caffeine
Glucuronolactone Natural metabolite found in the body Claims: Detoxicant Fight fatigue Provide a “sense of well-being” Benefits uncertain, but not a health concern NOAEL = 1000 mg/kg/day
B-Vitamins Support and increase metabolism rate Enhance immune system function B6, B12 "[i]n general, B vitamins aren’t toxic in large amounts. They’re water-soluble, which means they pass out of the body in urine. But high doses of B6 can cause nerve damage, tingling, and numbness in the arms and legs." B6 - PyridoxineB12 - CobalaminB3 - Naicin
Health Impact of these chemicals “Crash-and-burn” Effect "The amounts of guarana, taurine, and ginseng found in popular energy drinks are far below the amounts expected to deliver either therapeutic benefits or adverse events” “A psychosomatic placebo effect of having consumed an “energy drink” may compound the chemicals’ actual effects” Indication of some synergistic effects
Short-term Health Risks Dehydration It is not advisable to use energy drinks during or after athletic activity or a strenuous workout Caffeine Intoxication 250mg+ / day (2.5 cups of coffee or 2-3 energy drinks) Adverse effects are (to varying degrees) severe Muscle twitching, impaired mental processes, heart palpitations Caffeine Overdose Cases involving seizures, deaths “Man’s heart stops after consuming 8 Red Bulls” Caffeine LD 50 = mg / kg body mass Caffeine Half-life ~= 5 hours As little as ~2g may require hospitalization.
Long-term Health Effects Caffeinism, dependence, addiction Stress hormone levels increased. Affected sleep cycle For moderate intake: MYTH: Atrial Fibrillation MYTH: Cardiovascular disease MYTH: Arteriosclerosis MYTH: Calcium loss in bones, osteoporosis
Vehicle Most come as canned beverages Powdered Energy Drinks Some are just an energy shot
5-Hour Energy Claim: No crash Half bottle = moderate energy Whole bottle = MAXIMUM ENERGY Warnings: No more than 2 bottles/day Caffiene Content Naicin Flush
Brands Red Bull Energy Drink Monster Energy Drink Full Throttle Energy Drink Amp Energy Drink XS Energy Drink Redline Energy Drink Rockstar Energy Drink Spark Energy Drink
Legal Issues "As long as we sell drinks, I really don't care.” Caffeine labeling voluntary? Caffeinated alcoholic beverages
Dangers Caffeine’s alertness and jitteriness effects are canceled by the alcohol’s effects. Sensory cues telling a person that they’re drunk are masked by caffeine’s effects. Blood alcohol content and its regulation independent of perception
Alternative Energy Adequate sleep Maintaining a healthy diet Fruit Juices, Milk Exercise Water Less than 250mg caffeine every day
Yerba Mate Tea Active Ingredients: Caffeine, Theobromine, Theophylline Health Benefits Polyphenol Antioxidant Lower dosage of caffeine Claims: strengthen immune system, relieve allergy symptoms, aid in weight loss Health Risks May increase cancer risk
Major References Drinks.html Drinks.html Taurine Clauson, KA; Shields, KM; McQueen, CE; Persad, N. "Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks". Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA 48 (3): e55–63;
Pictures and References Consumption fall-out-of-favor, fall-out-of-favorhttp://www.mintel.com/press-centre/press-releases/268/energy-drink-explosion-hits-food US Market Carbonation Manufacturing Caffeine Guarana Ginseng Glucuronolactone 5 Hour Energy Taurine Long term Rockstar Marketing Brands Energy-Drink, Energy-Drinkhttp://www.amazon.com/XS-Energy-Drink-Citrus-Blast/dp/B0030HWX9G Kids Legal Issues Conclusion