Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Nicotine Plant: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Did you know? Nicotine is more toxic than cocaine or heroin and smoking 40 cigarettes could be deadly (not.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Nicotine Plant: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Did you know? Nicotine is more toxic than cocaine or heroin and smoking 40 cigarettes could be deadly (not."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nicotine Plant: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Did you know? Nicotine is more toxic than cocaine or heroin and smoking 40 cigarettes could be deadly (not to mention silly!) for a non-smoker Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: stimulant, insecticide Molecular formula:C 8 H 14 N Credit: moche Caffeine Plant: Tea (Camellia sinensis) and others Did you know? Plants like tea and coffee produce caffeine as an insecticide to poison bugs which try to feed on the leaves. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: central nervous system stimulant Molecular formula:C 8 H 10 N 4 O Credit: nchenga Morphine Plant: Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) Did you know? Laudanum, a potent painkilling medicine made from opium poppies, is documented as far back as 1522 Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: analgesic Molecular formula:C 17 H 19 NO Credit: ykanazawa Cocaine Plant: Coca plant (Erythroxylum coca) Did you know? The original 1886 recipe for Coca-Cola included “a pinch of coca leaves” meaning, until 1906, it contained some cocaine! Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: local anaesthetic, stimulant Molecular formula:C 17 H 21 NO Credit: iheartpandas Science & Plants for Schools (www.saps.org.uk)www.saps.org.uk This resource was created by Dr Sarah McLusky, lecturer in biochemistry at Newcastle College (details correct as of 2012)

2 Taxol Plant: Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) Did you know? Taxol is also made by a fungus which lives in the tree bark. It is produced commercially in mixed plant/fungal cell cultures. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: chemotherapy (breast cancer) Molecular formula:C 47 H 51 NO Credit:: pellaea Codeine Plant: Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) Did you know? Codeine is the world’s most widely used opiate drug. It is made by methylating the more abundant drug, morphine. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: analgaesic Molecular formula:C 18 H 21 NO Credit: ykanazawa Quinine Plant: Cinchona tree (Cinchona ledgeriana) Did you know? Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria. Tonic water glows under UV light as it contains quinine – go on, try it! Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: anti-malaria Molecular formula:C 20 H 24 N 2 O Credit:: USGS Digoxin Plant: Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) Did you know? In 2006 an American nurse was convicted of killing 40 patients with overdoses of digoxin and given 18 life sentences Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: treating heart arrhythmia Molecular formula:C 41 H 64 O Credit:: freefotouk This resource was created by Dr Science & Plants for Schools (www.saps.org.uk)www.saps.org.uk This resource was created by Dr Sarah McLusky, lecturer in biochemistry at Newcastle College (details correct as of 2012)

3 Quinidine Plant: Cinchona tree (Cinchona ledgeriana) Did you know? Quinidine is an isomer of quinine – they have the same chemical formula, but different structures and properties Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: treating heart arrhythmia Molecular formula:C 20 H 24 N 2 O Credit:: USGS Ephedrine Plant: ma huang (Ephedra sinica) Did you know? Ephedrine is closely related to drugs like speed. Ma huang has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 5000 years. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: stimulant, decongestant Molecular formula:C 10 H 15 NO Credit: alexlomas Aspirin Plant: Willow tree (Salix alba) Did you know? Hippocrates, who lived around 400BC, recorded using a powder made from willow bark to treat pain and fever. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: analgaesic, blood thinner Molecular formula:C7H6O3C7H6O Credit: jimvanmeggelen Strychnine Plant: Strychnine tree (Strychnos nux-vomica) Did you know? Strychnine is the poison of choice in numerous books and films, including the movie ‘Psycho’ and Agatha Christie novels. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: rat poison Molecular formula:C 21 H 22 N 2 O Credit: lalithamba Science & Plants for Schools (www.saps.org.uk)www.saps.org.uk This resource was created by Dr Sarah McLusky, lecturer in biochemistry at Newcastle College (details correct as of 2012)

4 Tetrahydrocannabinol Plant: Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) Did you know? Synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol, known as dronabinol, is available on prescription in the USA for treating anorexia and nausea. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: analgesic, anti-emetic Molecular formula:C 21 H 30 O Credit: M. MartinVicente Vinblastine Plant: Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) Did you know? The Madagascar periwinkle was used as a folk remedy for centuries before the active chemicals were isolated in the 1950s Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: chemotherapy (leukaemia) Molecular formula:C 46 H 58 N 4 O Credit: Kew Gardens Vincristine Plant: Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) Did you know? Extracting this drug from the plant is a slow process with low yields, but the molecule is too complicated to make synthetically. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: chemotherapy (leukaemia) Molecular formula:C 46 H 56 N 4 O Credit: Kew Gardens Theobromine Plant: Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Did you know? Dogs metabolise theobromine more slowly than humans and can be poisoned with just one bar of chocolate. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: diuretic, vasodilator Molecular formula:C7H8N4O2C7H8N4O Credit: Steve Linder Science & Plants for Schools (www.saps.org.uk)www.saps.org.uk This resource was created by Dr Sarah McLusky, lecturer in biochemistry at Newcastle College (details correct as of 2012 )

5 Reserpine Plant: Snake root (Rauwolfia serpentina) Did you know? In India, home of the Snake Root plant, this drug has been has been popular for centuries – even Mahatma Gandhi used it! Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: high blood pressure, anti-psychotic Molecular formula:C 33 H 40 N 2 O Credit: kadavoor Topotecan Plant: Happy tree (Camptotheca acuminata) Did you know? Topotecan inhibits the enzyme DNA topoisomerase and stops cancerous cells replicating. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: chemotherapy (ovarian & lung cancer) Molecular formula:C 23 H 23 N 3 O , Credit: scott.zona Irinotecan Plant: Happy tree (Camptotheca acuminata) Did you know? Irinotecan and topotecan are derivatives of naturally occurring camptothecin which is used in Chinese herbal medicine. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: chemotherapy (colorectal cancer) Molecular formula:C 33 H 38 N 4 O Credit: scott.zona Capsaicin Plant: Chilli peppers (Capsicum sp.) Did you know? Capsaicin creates a burning sensation on the skin which blocks pain signals – you might have experienced it eating chillies! Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: treating nerve pain and arthritis Molecular formula:C 18 H 27 NO Credit: Ben Geach This resource was created by Dr Science & Plants for Schools (www.saps.org.uk)www.saps.org.uk This resource was created by Dr Sarah McLusky, lecturer in biochemistry at Newcastle College (details correct as of 2012)

6 Theophylline Plant: Tea (Camellia sinensis) Did you know? If you have asthma a cup of tea might help! Theophylline was developed as an asthma treatment drug in the 1950s. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: muscle relaxant and bronchodilator Molecular formula:C7H8N4O2C7H8N4O Credit: nchenga Diosgenin Plant: Yams (Dioscorea sp.) Did you know? Diosgenin is a precursor of the hormone progesterone and research on this plant in the 1940s led to the first contraceptive pill Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: contraceptive Molecular formula:C 27 H 42 O > Credit: IITA Colchicine Plant: Autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale) Did you know? Once common, this drug is very toxic and has nasty side effects (like diarrhoea) so is now only used for short term, acute cases Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: treating gout Molecular formula:C 22 H 25 NO Credit: Dietmut Tubocurarine Plant: Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum) Did you know? South American natives used this plant extract to poison their arrow heads and blow darts when hunting as it paralyses victims. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: muscle relaxant, nicotine withdrawal Molecular formula:C 37 H 41 N 2 O Credit: NTBG Science & Plants for Schools (www.saps.org.uk)www.saps.org.uk This resource was created by Dr Sarah McLusky, lecturer in biochemistry at Newcastle College (details correct as of 2012

7 Plant: Did you know? Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: Molecular formula: Heroin Plant: Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) Did you know? Heroin is actually the ‘trade name’ for diamorphine and from 1898 to 1910 could be bought freely as a cough suppressant. Cost per 100mg (£): Molecular weight (g): Toxicity (LD50 mouse mg/kg): Use: analgaesic Molecular formula:C 21 H 23 NO Credit: ykanazawa This resource was created by Dr Science & Plants for Schools (www.saps.org.uk)www.saps.org.uk This resource was created by Dr Sarah McLusky, lecturer in biochemistry at Newcastle College (details correct as of 2012


Download ppt "Nicotine Plant: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Did you know? Nicotine is more toxic than cocaine or heroin and smoking 40 cigarettes could be deadly (not."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google