Presentation on theme: "Drugs in our Pharmacy of Natural Origin 1) Drugs Containing of Alkaloids."— Presentation transcript:
Drugs in our Pharmacy of Natural Origin 1) Drugs Containing of Alkaloids
1) Cafergot Generic Name: caffeine and ergotamine Brand Names: Cafatine, Cafergot, Cafetrate, Ercaf, Migergot, Wigraine Caffeine and ergotamine both cause vasoconstriction (narrowing) of arteries and veins that supply blood to the head. Caffeine and ergotamine are used to prevent and to treat vascular headaches such as migraine and migraine-like headaches.
CAFERGOT Each tablet for oral administration contains 1 mg ergotamine tartrate, USP, and 100 mg caffeine, USP. Inactive ingredients include acacia, calcium carbonate, compressible sugar, confectioner's sugar (sucrose and corn starch), magnesium stearate, methylparaben, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, sodium starch glycolate, starch (potato), sucrose, synthetic iron oxide, titanium dioxide and other ingredients.
Chemical structure Ergotamine tartarate Caffeine Ergotamine tartarate Caffeine
Natural source of Caffeine: * Coffee consists of the dried ripe seed of Coffea arabica or other Coffea species (Rubiaceae). * Tea is the prepared leaves and leaf buds of Camellia sinensis (Thea sinensis) (Theaceae). * Cola, or kola, is the dried cotyledon from seeds of various species of Cola e.g. C. nitida and C. acuminata (Sterculiaceae). * Cocoa (or cacao) is derived from the roasted seeds of Theobroma cacao (Sterculiaceae).
Natural Source of Ergotamine Ergotamine is an alkaloid isolated from ergot. Ergot is the dried sclerotium of the fungus Claviceps purpurea (Clavicipitaceae) developed on the ovary of rye, Secale cereale (Graminae).
Uses of Ergotamine Ergotamine is used in the treatment of acute attacks of migraine, Ergotamine is effective orally, or by inhalation in aerosol form, and may be combined with caffeine.
2) Methergine Ergometrine is used as an Oxytocic, and is injected during the final stages of labour and immediately following childbirth, especially if haemorrhage occurs. Bleeding is reduced because of its vasoconstrictor effects, and it is valuable after Caesarian operations. * Ergometrine is also orally active. It produces stimulation of uterine muscles.
Structure of Ergometrine
LSD Lysergic acid diethyl amide is a semi- synthetic Compound prepared from lysergic acid. It is a powerful hallucinogen.
Ergotism It is a poisonous case resulting from the chronic consumption of rye or wheat flour contaminated with ergot. Alkaloids of ergot cause vasoconstriction especially in the limbs, that may results by time in gangrene of one or more limbs. It is a poisonous case resulting from the chronic consumption of rye or wheat flour contaminated with ergot. Alkaloids of ergot cause vasoconstriction especially in the limbs, that may results by time in gangrene of one or more limbs.
3) Buscopan Buscopan tablets contain the active ingredient hyoscine- N-butylbromide, which is an antispasmodic alkaloid. It is used to relieve abdominal pain that is caused by painful spasms in the muscles of the gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) tract. Hyoscine stops the spasms in the smooth muscle by preventing acetylcholine from acting on the muscle. It does this by blocking the receptors on the muscle cells that the acetylcholine would normally act on. By preventing acetylcholine from acting on the muscle in the GI and GU tracts, hyoscine reduces the muscle contractions. This allows the muscle to relax and reduces the painful spasms and cramps.
Buscopan Dosage Forms Typical dose is 10mg 3 times daily.for adults
Side effects Dry mouth. Blurred vision. Reduced ability to sweat. Increase in heart rate (tachycardia). Constipation. Allergic skin reactions.
4) Atropine Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system. World Health OrganizationEssential Drugs ListWorld Health OrganizationEssential Drugs List Atropine is a racemic mixture of D-hyoscyamine and L-hyoscyamine. racemichyoscyamineracemichyoscyamine The most common atropine compound used in medicine is atropine sulfate. sulfate Atropine sulfate Injection, USP 0.1 mg/mI (Adult) 0.05 mg/mL (Pediatric)
Pharmacological Action of Atropine A mydriatic (causes dilatation of the eye pupil). An antispasmodic (relaxes the intestinal and bronchial smooth muscles). A preanesthetic medication to stop body secretions. A CNS stimulant. An antidote to organophosphorus insecticides.
Side Effects of Atropine Adverse reactions to atropine include: ventricular fibrillation. fibrillation tachycardia. tachycardia dizziness. dizziness nausea. ausea blurred vision & dilated pupils loss of balance, & confusion. confusion
Natural Source of Atropine & Hyoscine Atropine & Hyoscine are tropane alkaloids extracted from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), Duboisia(Duboisia myobroides), henbane (hyoscyamus niger & hyoscyamus muticus) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. tropane alkaloiddeadly nightshadejimsonweedSolanaceaetropane alkaloiddeadly nightshadejimsonweedSolanaceae