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Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Chapter 22 Ergogenic Aids.

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Presentation on theme: "Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Chapter 22 Ergogenic Aids."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Chapter 22 Ergogenic Aids

2 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Objectives Define ergogenic aids Understand amino acid supplementation Understand caffeine supplementation Understand creatine supplementation Describe hydration mechanics Describe nutrient timing

3 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Introduction Ergogenic aids are substances (including nutrients, nutritional supplements, and drugs) that improve athletic performance Several ergogenic aids have been shown to have a positive effect under specific conditions

4 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Branched-Chain Amino Acids The amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine are collectively known as the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) Supplementation with BCAAs does not appear to improve short-term exercise performance but may reduce muscle breakdown during clinical conditions of wasting and periods of prolonged exercise

5 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Branched-Chain Amino Acids (cont.) Men and women who ingest approximately 10-15 g of BCAAs per day for at least 30 days increase their lean body mass more than do matched controls BCAAs may have positive ergogenic effects related to their anticatabolic effect; however, fairly large doses must be consumed to achieve this

6 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Caffeine Caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid; it may promote lipolysis, stimulate the central nervous system, and act as a performance-enhancing aid for many types of athletic activity Caffeine has been removed from the World Anti-Doping Agency’s banned list

7 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown

8 Colostrum Colostrum is a component of breast or cow’s milk; it is found at its highest concentration 2 to 3 days after a female gives birth It is a rich source of protein, antibodies, and growth factors

9 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Colostrum (cont.) Several compelling studies demonstrate an ergogenic effect of colostrum supplementation Such supplementation combined with aerobic and heavy resistance training significantly increased bone-free lean body mass compared to whey protein

10 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Creatine Creatine is a naturally occurring nitrogenous compound made in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine Is absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine and reaches peak levels at 60 to 90 minutes

11 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Creatine (cont.) Creatine is thought to serve at least four vital functions: –1. Stores energy that can be used to regenerate ATP –2. Enhances energy transfer between the mitochondria and muscle fibers –3. Serves as a buffer against intracellular acidosis during exercise –4. Stimulates glycogenolysis during exercise

12 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Creatine (cont.) Of the well-controlled human trials on creatine, about two thirds have shown benefits from its use Depending on the initial fitness level of the subjects, these have included the following –Increased dynamic strength and power –Increased body weight and lean body mass –Increased sprint performance

13 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Creatine (cont.) Creatine supplementation has a “significant positive effect on both working memory and intelligence” The only consistently reported “side effect” in humans has been weight gain Neither short, medium, nor long-term oral creatine supplementation causes detrimental effects on the kidneys of healthy individuals

14 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Creatine (cont.) Athletes considering creatine use should exercise the following precautions: –Do not “load” –Cycle period of use with periods of nonuse –Purchase the product from a reputable manufacturer who is able to provide a “certificate of analysis”

15 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Essential Amino Acids Of the 20 amino acids used to form proteins, 8 are considered essential amino acids (EAAs) A growing body of literature demonstrates the efficacy of essential amino acid supplementation in enhancing physical performance Essential amino acids play a critical role in promoting skeletal muscle anabolism

16 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Glucosamine Combination of glutamine and glucose Can repair damaged cartilage and make new cartilage Regular consumption of glucosamine may alleviate the signs of osteoarthritis (OA) May provide some degree of pain relief and improved function in persons experiencing regular knee pain

17 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Glutamine Most plentiful nonessential amino acid in the human body, particularly in the plasma and skeletal muscle, and has numerous physiological functions Has been widely used by weight trainers because of its muscle building potential

18 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Glutamine (cont.) Has been shown not only to increase protein synthesis but also to stimulate glycogen synthesis Glutamine’s role as an ergogenic aid as it relates to immune function may be of greater significance to athletes than its ability to increase muscle mass

19 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Glycerol Regular exercise can cause fluid loss, that if not replaced, can potentially compromise performance and/or the next exercise session The most common method of “hyperhydration,” a condition in which body water stores are temporarily elevated, is the consumption of glycerol

20 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Glycerol (cont.) Glycerol ingestion causes an increase in fluid absorption by the blood and tissues, prolonging hyperhydration for up to 4 hrs. Has also been used to treat cerebral edema and glaucoma Headache and blurred vision sometimes accompany glycerol use

21 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Green Tea Extract Green tea extract has a high content of caffeine and catechin polyphenols, which could increase 24-hour energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans

22 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Green Tea Extract (cont.) Green tea has thermogenic properties and promotes fat oxidation beyond that explained by its caffeine content Green tea extract may play a role in the control of body composition by thermogenisis, fat oxidation, or both

23 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown HMB Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a natural component of fish and milk HMB is thought to increase strength and lean body mass by acting as an anticatabolic agent in muscle Ingestion of HMB appears to be safe and may even have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health when doses of 3g/day are ingested for up to 8 weeks

24 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Hydration Dehydration has negative effects on performance (1-2% water loss; 5-6% is bad) Inadequate hydration can refer to either hypohydration (being dehydrated prior to exercise) or exercise-induced dehydration, which occurs during exercise

25 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Hydration (cont.) Water and sports drinks can be very effective in maintaining performance or delaying the inevitable decrease in performance, especially in endurance or team sports that last longer than 1 hour Without proper fluid replacement during prolonged exercise or exercise in a hot and humid environment, heat-related illness and cardiovascular issues can become life-threatening

26 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Hydration (cont.) Complete restoration of fluid lost during exercise cannot occur without replacement of electrolytes, primarily sodium Inclusion of carbohydrates in rehydration solutions is necessary to maintain blood glucose concentrations for optimal performance in exercise lasting longer than 1 hour

27 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Pre- and Postworkout Nutrition Strenuous exercise can reduce various energy substrates, increase muscle protein breakdown, damage cell membranes, cause fluid loss, and temporarily impair immune function A successful pre-exercise strategy is to provide a small amount of carbohydrate along with 6 g of essential amino acids approx. 15 min before resistance training

28 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Pre- and Postworkout Nutrition (cont.) This specific combination of carbohydrates and essential amino acids has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis 160% more than ingesting the same cocktail post-exercise Only essential amino acids are needed to promote anabolic processes in muscle

29 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Pre- and Postworkout Nutrition (cont.) Nutrition during the post-exercise period accomplishes three goals: –1. Puts the brakes on protein degradation –2. Increases muscle protein synthesis –3. Rapidly initiates the process of muscle glycogen regeneration

30 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Pre- and Postworkout Nutrition (cont.) A carbohydrate-to-protein ratio that ranges from 4:1 to approx. 1:1 may expedite recovery as well as enhance muscle glycogen synthesis and net protein status Many athletes find that adding 3-5 g of creatine and 5-10 g of BCAAs to their pre- and post-workout beverages provides an enormous benefit

31 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown Pre- and Postworkout Nutrition (cont.) Myostatin blockers have been purported to enhance muscle hypertrophy Nitric oxid stimulators are currently popular to build muscle mass but controlled research studies have not demonstrated a benefit from the supplement Illegal substances such as anabolic- androgenic steroids are commonly used

32 Chandler/Brown: Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance© 2008 T. Jeff Chandler and Lee E. Brown

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36 Next Class Chapter 10 Resistance technique Homework-Chapter 22


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