Presentation on theme: "Should Guarana be included in our daily diet for caffeine intake? By Rodrigo Silva Economic Botany 17. April 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Should Guarana be included in our daily diet for caffeine intake? By Rodrigo Silva Economic Botany 17. April 2008
What is Guarana? Paullinia cupana Native to the Amazone Forest, especially common in Brazil Woody vine that climbs trees; if openly cultivated, adopts a shrubby habit History -Tupi Guarani culture Tupi word “Guarana“ meaning “seeds that look like people‘s eyes“ Plant that grows seedy fruits Each seed contains 3 times more caffeine than a coffee seed.
Plant Taxonomy Family, Sapindaceae and Genus, Paullinia Flowers yellow, 5 petals and sepals, 8 stamens Fruits red, each fruit contains about one seed. When mature, Fruit partially opens, showing the seed. Seeds black, partially covered by white arils (fleshy)
Usage Mainly cultivated and used in South America; Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia Primarily used in carbonated soft and energy drinks. Also used as an ingredient for herbal tea and weight loss pills South America obtains most of its caffeine from Guarana
Harvesting and Processing Harvesting executed by hand at the fruit‘s splitting stage Seeds are stored piled up in a shelter for 2 to 3 days to allow slight fermentation Shells are removed by hand or machine, then left to dry in open air or dried artificially Guarana is produced only from the seeds, all other parts are discarded. Last process, Roasting. Done in clay ovens for about 4 to 5 hours until seed reaches about 9% humidity
Types of Guarana Roasted guarana simply roasted seeds, sold by amazon farmers to aooperative unions and industry Guarana on a stick after roasting seed is ground into powder, mixed with water into a dough and molded onto a stick; sticks are dried over moderate fire until it becomes hard Guarana powder after grinding the powder is sold. This form is available in retail outlets (health shops) Guarana syrup, used in soft drinks and smoothies, limited to large industries
Guarana is commonly found in every smoothie shop Guarana sodas can be found in any supermarket or small market
Nutrition Facts Xanthine alkaloids - Caffeine, facilitates fat loss and reduces fatigue - Theophylline, stimulates the heart and central nervous system, enhances alertness and alleviates fatigue. Also strong diuretic activity and reduces constriction of the bronchials (asthma). - Theobromine, has similar effects to theophylline
Clinical Researchs Scientific validation was given to this plant used for centuries by Indians as a heart tonic and to thin blood. “prevent blood clots“, research 1989 and 1991. Research validated guarana to enhance long-term memory (linked to essential seed oils), increase physical activity and endurance under stress. Research 1997 in vivo, rats. Research found the plant to have pain-relieving activity, traditionally used for headaches and migraines. Research 1997. Another research documented antibacterial properties in guarana against E. coli and Salmonella. It also demonstrated anti-oxidant properties. Research 1998.