Presentation on theme: "Drugs in Society: Alcohol, Nicotine, and Caffeine"— Presentation transcript:
1 Drugs in Society: Alcohol, Nicotine, and Caffeine Kathy Badria, Kaitlin Shupe, Scott Stirn, Shayne Thompson, Rebecca Watson
2 In the past week, how many of you… Drank alcohol?Had a smoke?Drank a cup of coffee?
3 Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior AlcoholPhysiological MechanismAddictionEffects on Behavior
4 Physiological Mechanism Alters interaction between neurotransmitters and receptor at the synaptic cleftAffects variety of transmitters: ACh, serotonin, NMDA, dopamine, GABAEx) GABA receptorIncreases activity which decreases neuronal transmissionAlcohol in the Brain
5 Addiction FormationNormal NMDA function is excitatory when stimulated by glutamate3Inhibited by alcoholTwo changes with chronic alcohol useNMDA composition changes leading to synaptic plasticity 5Increase in number of NMDA receptors6
6 Addiction: Heredity “Alcoholism is genetic” Speculation4 Actuality True, but gene/ mechanism unknownSpeculation4Altered serotonin structureAltered dopamine receptor structureEtc.ActualityCombination of environmental and genetic factors
7 Effects on behavior: Acute RelaxingSlows reaction timeLowers inhibitionsReduces coordinationImpairs concentrationMostly effects on cerebellumHand to nose field test
8 Effects on Behavior: High consumption VomitingUnconsciousnessDifficulty breathingComa
11 Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior NicotinePhysiological MechanismAddictionEffects on Behavior
12 What is Nicotine? Natural alkaloid, C10H14N2 Found in Nicotiana tabacumClear liquid- turns brown when burned
13 How is Nicotine delivered to the Body? Easily absorbed through skin, lungs, and mucous membranesEnters small blood vessels which carry it to the heartThe heart pumps it to the brainAfter about minutes it reaches other tissues in the body such as skeletal muscle8
14 Nicotine in the BrainInhaled nicotine reaches the brain within 10 secondsDiffuses capillary walls and surrounds neuronsMimics acetylcholine by activating cholinergic receptors. (Nicotinic Receptors) Nicotine in the BrainIncreases levels of dopamine, glutamate, and epinephrineAcetylcholine
15 Elimination from the Body Metabolized in the liver, kidney, and lungsCotinine (70%) and Nicotine-N’-oxide (4%)8Half life ~2 hours8Excreted in urine
16 Physiological Effects Can act as both a stimulant and a sedativeImmediate release of glucoseIncreased blood pressureIncreased heart rateIncreased respirationSuppression of insulinIf pregnant, may cause lower birth weight and premature deliveryIncreased risk for seizures and hypothermia
17 Behavioral and Cognitive Effects ToleranceFeelings of pleasure and motivation (reward pathway)AddictionWithdrawal syndromeCommon withdrawal symptoms are craving, irritability, aggressiveness, cognitive deficits, sleep disturbances, and increased appetiteDepression and fatigueMight improve reaction time, ability to focus, and memory
18 Indirect Effects of Nicotine Cancer!: lungs, mouth, esophagus, larynx, pharynx, kidney, bladder and many othersCardiovascular diseaseStrokeEmphysema
19 Treatments for Nicotine Addiction Behavioral and pharmacological treatmentsNicotine Replacement Therapies: nicotine gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, and inhalerZyban
20 Toxicity Previously used as an insecticide9 Previously used in darts for sedating elephants9Nicotine poisoning causes vomiting, nausea, headaches, respiratory problems, abdominal pains, seizures, and death10LD50: oral rat- 50mg/kg and skin rat-140mg/kg10
21 Some Statistics to Consider… Nicotine is one of the most heavily used addictive drugs in the U.S.11An estimated 45.8 million adults in the United States smoke cigarettes12Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the U.S., causing approximately 440,000 premature deaths each year and resulting in an annual cost of more than $75 billion in direct medical costs11Each year an estimated 150,000–300,000 children younger than 18 months of age have lower respiratory tract infections because of exposure to secondhand smoke12
22 Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior CaffeinePhysiological MechanismAddictionEffects on Behavior
23 What is Caffeine? Trimethylxanthine14, C8H10N4O2 In pure form, caffeine is a white crystalline powder that tastes very bitter.LD50 of Caffeine: 13-19g (depends on weight and individual sensitivity).The half-life of caffeine is hrs.Caffeine is completely absorbed by the stomach and small intestine within 45 minutes of ingestion.The chief source of pure caffeine is the process of decaffeinating coffee and tea.
24 Caffeine’s Activity comes from its resemblance to15: AdenosineC10H13N5 O4cAMPC10H12N5O6PC8H10N4O2
25 The Mechanism of Caffeine: Caffeine works in 4 ways16: Inhibition of PhosphodiesteraseAntagonism of Adenosine ReceptorsMobilization of Calcium (may lead to bone mass loss; osteoporosis)Antagonism of Benzodiazepine Receptors
26 The Two Key Mechanisms of Caffeine: It blocks the enzyme phosphodiesterase from removing the secondary messenger cAMP, so the excitory signals from adrenaline persist much longer.It binds to adenosine receptors on the surface of cells without activating them (competitive inhibition). The result is an increase in adrenaline (epinephrine). Since epinephrine is the natural endocrine response to a perceived threat this will lead to various symptoms17.
27 Without CaffeineAdenosine builds up in the course of a day, and when levels are high enough, the adenosine binds to receptors that cause nerves to release inhibitory signals that lead to drowsiness and sleep.Adenosine also causes a dilation of blood vessels to the brain, to provide more oxygen and nutrients to cells needing to be replenished18.Caffeine in the Brain
28 With CaffeineTo a nerve cell, caffeine looks like adenosine. Caffeine thus binds to the adenosine receptor. However, it does not slow down the cell’s activity like adenosine would. The cell doesn’t respond to adenosine because caffeine is taking up all the receptors adenosine binds to. And instead of slowing down as usual, the cells speed up.Caffeine also causes the brain’s blood vessels to constrict, whereas adenosine causes them to open up.This delays drowsiness, and fatigue, it also tends to produce a more rapid and clearer flow of thought19.
29 Increased Nervous Activity Because caffeine interrupts the pathway that normally serves to regulate nerve conduction by suppressing post-synaptic potentials, there is a constant neuron firing in the brain, the pituitary gland sees this activity as a problem and assumes something is wrong.As a result, it will soon begin to release hormones telling the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline (epinephrine)20.
30 The Effects of Adrenaline: Physiological Effects of Caffeine21 Dilating pupilsHeart beats fasterBlood vessels on the surface constrict to slow blood flow from cuts and also to increase blood flow to musclesBlood pressure risesBlood flow to stomach slowsThe liver releases sugar into the blood for extra energyMuscles tightenConstricts blood vesselsCaffeine is a diuretic (dehydration)
31 Psychological Effects of Caffeine16 An intake of 100mg of Caffeine can induce:DizzinessAnxietyAgitationIrritabilityRestlessnessInsomniaHeadachesCan form a dependence within 6-15 days of useThose who are addicted to caffeine show symptoms of withdrawal hours after intake has stopped.Symptoms of withdrawal include:HeadacheFatigueMaybe Anxiety
32 Addictive QualitiesDopamine is a neurotransmitter that, in certain parts of the brain activates the pleasure center.Furthermore, Caffeine increases dopamine levels in a similar way that amphetamines do (heroin and cocaine manipulate dopamine levels by slowing down the rate of dopamine reuptake).Although the effect of caffeine is much lower than heroin, it follows the same mechanism.It is the dopamine connection that is suspected to contribute to caffeine addiction22.
34 The Need for Caffeine?Clearly, you can see why your body might want/ be addicted to caffeine.Its effects are short term. If you are short on sleep and need to stay awake:Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors by binding to them, so you feel alert.It injects adrenaline into your system to give you a boost.And it manipulates dopamine production to make you feel good18.
40 MSDS, Caffeine24Target Organs: Heart, central nervous system Potential Health Effects Eye: Dust may cause mechanical irritation. Skin: May cause skin irritation. Ingestion: Harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Ingestion increases the metabolic rate causing warm, flushed and moist skin, muscular weakness, rapid heart rate, insomnia, nervousness, increased metabolism and weight loss. May cause ataxia, blood pressure elevation, convulsions, hallucinations, hypermotility, muscle contraction or spasticity, somnolence (general depressed activity), toxic psychosis, and tremors. Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause effects similar to those described for ingestion. Chronic: May cause cancer according to animal studies. May cause digestive tract and cardiac disturbances. May cause reproductive and fetal effects.
41 Caffeine’s History600,000 BCE- Believed to be the first use of caffeine2,737 BCE- Tea is invented by the Chinese900 BCE- Homer recalls a black beverage that wards off sleep.850 CE- Coffee is discovered by goat herder Kaldi1100 CE- First coffee trees cultivated
42 1475 CE- First coffee shop opens in Turkey 1607 CE- Coffee is brought to the new world1880 CE- Caffinated soft drinks are invented1970 CE- US imports 70 percent of the worlds coffeePresent Day- More than 400 billion cups of coffee are consumed every year.
43 Fun Facts25, 26Americans drink more than 300 million cups of coffee per day.The world’s three biggest coffee drinkers are the U.S., France and Germany (65% of the total world consumption).Coffee is second only to oil in terms of dollars trade worldwide.
44 More Fun Facts25, 26Coffee beans from Coffee arabica, grown mostly in Central and South America, contain about 1.1% caffeine. Beans from Coffee robusta, grown mostly in Indonesia and Africa, contain about 2.2% caffeine.Caffeine is on the International Olympic Committee list of prohibited substances (The limit: 12 ug / mL of urine).The human body will usually absorb up to about 300 milligrams of caffeine at a given time (4 cups of coffee).
46 Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms Craving for nicotine, irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, restlessness, sleep disturbances, decreased heart rate, and increased appetite or weight gainProof that the symptoms are from nicotine can be shown be the replacement of nicotine and the relief of the symptoms
48 MSDS, Nicotine19 Potential Health Effects Eye: May cause eye irritation.Skin: May cause skin irritation. May be fatal if absorbed through the skin.Ingestion: May be fatal if swallowed. May cause adverse effects of the musculature. May cause severe digestive tract irritation with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause tremors and convulsions. May cause muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and possible death. Exposure causes initial nervous system stimulation followed by severe CNS depression. May cause ataxia and incoordination.Inhalation: May cause effects similar to those described for ingestion.Chronic: May cause digestive tract and cardiac disturbances.
50 Annual Deaths Attributable to Cigarette Smoking in the U. S
51 Tobacco’s early history22 Tobacco originated in the Americas.1492: Christopher Columbus brings tobacco to Europe. One crew member is caught smoking by the Inquisition and is imprisoned for being possessed by the Devil.1565: Tobacco’s popularity has spread throughout Europe1612: Tobacco is successfully cultivated for the first time as a cash crop in Virginia1618: Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.1629: Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.1660: Slavery appears in the tobacco-growing colonies of Virginia and Maryland.1775: Virginia and Maryland's combined tobacco production exceeds 100 million pounds.
53 AMENDMENT XVIII40 Passed by Congress December 18, 1917 AMENDMENT XVIII40 Passed by Congress December 18, Ratified January 16, Repealed by amendment 21.Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
54 AMENDMENT XXI40 Passed by Congress February 20, 1933 AMENDMENT XXI40 Passed by Congress February 20, Ratified December 5, 1933.Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
55 1984: National Minimum Drinking Age Act forced states to raise their drinking ages to 21 or lose federal highway funding.35Impact:Proportion of drivers age who were involved in fatal crashes and were intoxicated dropped 33 percent from 1988 to 1998BUT Proportion of intoxicated drivers aged and 25 or older dropped drastically as well, according to the CDCDrivers age are involved in ~13% of all alcohol-related fatal accidentsBUT drivers age are also involved in ~13% of all NON-alcohol-related fatal accidents (blame experience, not alcohol?)
56 State-by-State Laws37In Alabama, 2 of 3 counties are dry (no production, distribution, or sale of alcohol allowed). However, Alabama permits the sale of fireworks, tobacco and firearms with virtually no restrictions or regulations.Fairbanks, Alaska, is a dry town for moose (It is illegal to feed a moose any alcoholic beverage)In Indiana, liquor stores can’t sell milk or cold soft drinks, but they can sell unrefrigerated soft drinksIt is illegal to bring alcohol through a dry county in Mississippi while traveling across the countryNebraska state law prohibits bars from selling beer unless they are simultaneously brewing a kettle of soup
57 In Utah:37 Wine used for wine tastings must not be swallowed. “Full alcohol service is available only to dues-paying members of private social clubs or a limited number of restaurants that can't advertise, display, or mention the availability of alcohol beverages.”“It's illegal ... to advertise drink prices, alcohol brands, to show a ‘drinking scene,’ to promote happy hour, to advertise free food, or for restaurants to furnish alcohol beverage lists unless a customer specifically requests one.”
58 Exceptions to Minimum Age of 21 for Consumption of Alcohol (APIS, 1/1/2005)27
59 Alcohol and weight36Drinking alcohol doesn't lead to weight gain, and many studies report a small reduction in weight for women who drink. Probable causes:Research suggests that alcohol energy is not efficiently usedAlcohol appears to increase metabolic rate significantlyConsumption of sugar may decrease as consumption of alcohol increasesWeight gain comes from the tendency to eat more food while drinking, not the alcohol itself
60 Alcohol Myths38 Myth: Drinking coffee can sober a person up No amount of coffee (or any other drink) can cause alcohol to leave a person’s system faster.Alcohol leaves virtually everyone’s system at a constant rate of % BAC per hour.Myth: Men and women can drink the same, given the same height and weight.Women generally have a higher fat content, so the same amount of alcohol has a higher concentration in their lower water content.Women have less alcohol dehydrogenase in their system, preventing them from metabolizing alcohol as quickly.
61 More myths38 Myth: Binge drinking is an epidemic on college campuses. To be a binge drinker, one must drink over an “extended period of time (typically at least two days) during which time a person repeatedly becomes intoxicated and gives up his or her usual activities and obligations in order to become intoxicated.”Myth: Alcohol destroys brain cells.There is no scientific evidence that alcohol in moderation contributes to brain cell loss.In fact, moderate drinking is often associated with improved cognitive function.
62 Binge DrinkingBinge drinking is defined as having five or more drinks in a row for boys and four or more drinks in a row for girls by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and AlcoholismBinge drinking often begins around 13 and increases through adolescence60 percent of college men and 50 percent of college women are binge drinkers91 percent of college women who are considered binge drinkers, consider themselves moderate or light drinkers
63 Consequences Vomiting Unconsciousness Cold, clammy, pale, or bluish skinSlow or irregular breathingAlcohol poisoningDecreased awareness of surroundings
64 Social Consequences In schools with high binge drinking rates 34 percent of non-binge drinkers reported being insulted or humiliated by binge drinkers13 percent reported being pushed, hit, or assaulted54 percent reported having to take care of a drunken student68 percent were interrupted while studying26 percent of women experienced an unwanted sexual advance
65 Fun facts about alcohol39 Frederick the Great of Prussia tried to ban the consumption of coffee, demanding that the populace drink alcohol instead.The “Bible belt”, which consumes the least alcohol in the U.S., is also known by many doctors as “Stroke Alley”.Temperance activists typically consumed patent medicines that contained up to 40% alcohol (about as much as whiskey).Bourbon is the official spirit of the United States.The U.S. Marines’ first recruiting station was in a bar.Magellan spent more on sherry than on weapons for his trip around the world in 1519.
67 Why are these drugs legal in the United States?
68 Cannabis Why is marijuana a controlled substance when alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are alllegal drugs?Cannabis in the Brain
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