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Drugs in Society: Alcohol, Nicotine, and Caffeine

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1 Drugs in Society: Alcohol, Nicotine, and Caffeine
Kathy Badria, Kaitlin Shupe, Scott Stirn, Shayne Thompson, Rebecca Watson

2 In the past week, how many of you…
Drank alcohol? Had a smoke? Drank a cup of coffee?

3 Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior
Alcohol Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior

4 Physiological Mechanism
Alters interaction between neurotransmitters and receptor at the synaptic cleft Affects variety of transmitters: ACh, serotonin, NMDA, dopamine, GABA Ex) GABA receptor Increases activity which decreases neuronal transmission Alcohol in the Brain

5 Addiction Formation Normal NMDA function is excitatory when stimulated by glutamate3 Inhibited by alcohol Two changes with chronic alcohol use NMDA composition changes leading to synaptic plasticity 5 Increase in number of NMDA receptors6

6 Addiction: Heredity “Alcoholism is genetic” Speculation4 Actuality
True, but gene/ mechanism unknown Speculation4 Altered serotonin structure Altered dopamine receptor structure Etc. Actuality Combination of environmental and genetic factors

7 Effects on behavior: Acute
Relaxing Slows reaction time Lowers inhibitions Reduces coordination Impairs concentration Mostly effects on cerebellum Hand to nose field test

8 Effects on Behavior: High consumption
Vomiting Unconsciousness Difficulty breathing Coma

9 Effect on Behavior: Female1

10 Effects on Behavior: Male1

11 Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior
Nicotine Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior

12 What is Nicotine? Natural alkaloid, C10H14N2
Found in Nicotiana tabacum Clear liquid- turns brown when burned

13 How is Nicotine delivered to the Body?
Easily absorbed through skin, lungs, and mucous membranes Enters small blood vessels which carry it to the heart The heart pumps it to the brain After about minutes it reaches other tissues in the body such as skeletal muscle8

14 Nicotine in the Brain Inhaled nicotine reaches the brain within 10 seconds Diffuses capillary walls and surrounds neurons Mimics acetylcholine by activating cholinergic receptors. (Nicotinic Receptors) Nicotine in the Brain Increases levels of dopamine, glutamate, and epinephrine Acetylcholine

15 Elimination from the Body
Metabolized in the liver, kidney, and lungs Cotinine (70%) and Nicotine-N’-oxide (4%)8 Half life ~2 hours8 Excreted in urine

16 Physiological Effects
Can act as both a stimulant and a sedative Immediate release of glucose Increased blood pressure Increased heart rate Increased respiration Suppression of insulin If pregnant, may cause lower birth weight and premature delivery Increased risk for seizures and hypothermia

17 Behavioral and Cognitive Effects
Tolerance Feelings of pleasure and motivation (reward pathway) Addiction Withdrawal syndrome Common withdrawal symptoms are craving, irritability, aggressiveness, cognitive deficits, sleep disturbances, and increased appetite Depression and fatigue Might improve reaction time, ability to focus, and memory

18 Indirect Effects of Nicotine
Cancer!: lungs, mouth, esophagus, larynx, pharynx, kidney, bladder and many others Cardiovascular disease Stroke Emphysema

19 Treatments for Nicotine Addiction
Behavioral and pharmacological treatments Nicotine Replacement Therapies: nicotine gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, and inhaler Zyban

20 Toxicity Previously used as an insecticide9
Previously used in darts for sedating elephants9 Nicotine poisoning causes vomiting, nausea, headaches, respiratory problems, abdominal pains, seizures, and death10 LD50: oral rat- 50mg/kg and skin rat-140mg/kg10

21 Some Statistics to Consider…
Nicotine is one of the most heavily used addictive drugs in the U.S.11 An estimated 45.8 million adults in the United States smoke cigarettes12 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the U.S., causing approximately 440,000 premature deaths each year and resulting in an annual cost of more than $75 billion in direct medical costs11 Each year an estimated 150,000–300,000 children younger than 18 months of age have lower respiratory tract infections because of exposure to secondhand smoke12

22 Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior
Caffeine Physiological Mechanism Addiction Effects on Behavior

23 What is Caffeine? Trimethylxanthine14, C8H10N4O2
In pure form, caffeine is a white crystalline powder that tastes very bitter. LD50 of Caffeine: 13-19g (depends on weight and individual sensitivity). The half-life of caffeine is hrs. Caffeine is completely absorbed by the stomach and small intestine within 45 minutes of ingestion. The chief source of pure caffeine is the process of decaffeinating coffee and tea.

24 Caffeine’s Activity comes from its resemblance to15:
Adenosine C10H13N5 O4 cAMP C10H12N5O6P C8H10N4O2

25 The Mechanism of Caffeine: Caffeine works in 4 ways16:
Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase Antagonism of Adenosine Receptors Mobilization of Calcium (may lead to bone mass loss; osteoporosis) Antagonism of Benzodiazepine Receptors

26 The Two Key Mechanisms of Caffeine:
It blocks the enzyme phosphodiesterase from removing the secondary messenger cAMP, so the excitory signals from adrenaline persist much longer. It binds to adenosine receptors on the surface of cells without activating them (competitive inhibition). The result is an increase in adrenaline (epinephrine). Since epinephrine is the natural endocrine response to a perceived threat this will lead to various symptoms17.

27 Without Caffeine Adenosine builds up in the course of a day, and when levels are high enough, the adenosine binds to receptors that cause nerves to release inhibitory signals that lead to drowsiness and sleep. Adenosine also causes a dilation of blood vessels to the brain, to provide more oxygen and nutrients to cells needing to be replenished18. Caffeine in the Brain

28 With Caffeine To a nerve cell, caffeine looks like adenosine. Caffeine thus binds to the adenosine receptor. However, it does not slow down the cell’s activity like adenosine would. The cell doesn’t respond to adenosine because caffeine is taking up all the receptors adenosine binds to. And instead of slowing down as usual, the cells speed up. Caffeine also causes the brain’s blood vessels to constrict, whereas adenosine causes them to open up. This delays drowsiness, and fatigue, it also tends to produce a more rapid and clearer flow of thought19.

29 Increased Nervous Activity
Because caffeine interrupts the pathway that normally serves to regulate nerve conduction by suppressing post-synaptic potentials, there is a constant neuron firing in the brain, the pituitary gland sees this activity as a problem and assumes something is wrong. As a result, it will soon begin to release hormones telling the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline (epinephrine)20.

30 The Effects of Adrenaline: Physiological Effects of Caffeine21
Dilating pupils Heart beats faster Blood vessels on the surface constrict to slow blood flow from cuts and also to increase blood flow to muscles Blood pressure rises Blood flow to stomach slows The liver releases sugar into the blood for extra energy Muscles tighten Constricts blood vessels Caffeine is a diuretic (dehydration)

31 Psychological Effects of Caffeine16
An intake of 100mg of Caffeine can induce: Dizziness Anxiety Agitation Irritability Restlessness Insomnia Headaches Can form a dependence within 6-15 days of use Those who are addicted to caffeine show symptoms of withdrawal hours after intake has stopped. Symptoms of withdrawal include: Headache Fatigue Maybe Anxiety

32 Addictive Qualities Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that, in certain parts of the brain activates the pleasure center. Furthermore, Caffeine increases dopamine levels in a similar way that amphetamines do (heroin and cocaine manipulate dopamine levels by slowing down the rate of dopamine reuptake). Although the effect of caffeine is much lower than heroin, it follows the same mechanism. It is the dopamine connection that is suspected to contribute to caffeine addiction22.

33 Effects of Caffeine on Spiders

34 The Need for Caffeine? Clearly, you can see why your body might want/ be addicted to caffeine. Its effects are short term. If you are short on sleep and need to stay awake: Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors by binding to them, so you feel alert. It injects adrenaline into your system to give you a boost. And it manipulates dopamine production to make you feel good18.

35 How much caffeine is in23…
Coffee (6 oz. cup) 150 mg Java Water (16.9 oz.) 125 mg Espresso (1.5 oz. - 2 oz.) 100 mg Haagen Dazs Coffee Ice Cream (1 cup) 58 mg Mountain Dew (12 oz.) 55 mg Black tea (6 oz.) 50 mg Dannon Coffee Yogurt (8 oz.) 45 mg Diet Coke (12 oz.) 45 mg Dr Pepper (12 oz.) 42 mg Sunkist Orange Soda (12 oz.) 42 mg Lipton bottled iced tea (16 oz.) 40 mg Diet Pepsi (12 oz.) 36 mg Baking chocolate 35 mg Barq's Root Beer (12 oz.) 22 mg Green tea (6 oz.) 15 mg M&Ms (1.75 oz.) 15 mg Hershey's Milk Chocolate bar 10 mg Hot chocolate (6 oz.) 10 mg Decaffeinated coffee (6 oz.) 2-6 mg

36 Caffeine in Society

37 Caffeine Social aspects Why consume caffeine?
Is peer presure involved? Is it wrong to consume caffeine? How many people consume caffeine?

38 Death by Caffeine23

39 LD-50, Caffeine17 ORL-RAT LD mg kg-1 orl = oral IPR-RAT LD mg kg-1 ipr = intraperitoneal IVN-RAT LD mg kg-1 ivn = intravenous IVN-WMN LDLO 57 mg kg-1 wmn = woman ORL-CHD LDLO 320 mg kg-1 chd=child ORL-HMN LDLO 192 mg kg-1 hmn = human SCU-RAT LD mg kg-1 scu = subcutaneous IPR-GPG LDLO 220 mg kg-1 gpg = guinea pig LD50 = lethal dose, 50 percent kill LDLO = lowest published lethal dose

40 MSDS, Caffeine24 Target Organs: Heart, central nervous system Potential Health Effects Eye: Dust may cause mechanical irritation. Skin: May cause skin irritation. Ingestion: Harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Ingestion increases the metabolic rate causing warm, flushed and moist skin, muscular weakness, rapid heart rate, insomnia, nervousness, increased metabolism and weight loss. May cause ataxia, blood pressure elevation, convulsions, hallucinations, hypermotility, muscle contraction or spasticity, somnolence (general depressed activity), toxic psychosis, and tremors. Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause effects similar to those described for ingestion. Chronic: May cause cancer according to animal studies. May cause digestive tract and cardiac disturbances. May cause reproductive and fetal effects.

41 Caffeine’s History 600,000 BCE- Believed to be the first use of caffeine 2,737 BCE- Tea is invented by the Chinese 900 BCE- Homer recalls a black beverage that wards off sleep. 850 CE- Coffee is discovered by goat herder Kaldi 1100 CE- First coffee trees cultivated

42 1475 CE- First coffee shop opens in Turkey
1607 CE- Coffee is brought to the new world 1880 CE- Caffinated soft drinks are invented 1970 CE- US imports 70 percent of the worlds coffee Present Day- More than 400 billion cups of coffee are consumed every year.

43 Fun Facts25, 26 Americans drink more than 300 million cups of coffee per day. The world’s three biggest coffee drinkers are the U.S., France and Germany (65% of the total world consumption). Coffee is second only to oil in terms of dollars trade worldwide.

44 More Fun Facts25, 26 Coffee beans from Coffee arabica, grown mostly in Central and South America, contain about 1.1% caffeine. Beans from Coffee robusta, grown mostly in Indonesia and Africa, contain about 2.2% caffeine. Caffeine is on the International Olympic Committee list of prohibited substances (The limit: 12 ug / mL of urine). The human body will usually absorb up to about 300 milligrams of caffeine at a given time (4 cups of coffee).

45 Nicotine in Society

46 Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms
Craving for nicotine, irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, restlessness, sleep disturbances, decreased heart rate, and increased appetite or weight gain Proof that the symptoms are from nicotine can be shown be the replacement of nicotine and the relief of the symptoms

47 LD-50, Nicotine18 ORL-RAT LD50 50 mg kg-1 IPR-MUS LD mg kg-1 SKN-RBT LD50 50 mg kg-1 IVN-MUS LD mg kg-1 SKN-RAT LD mg kg-1 LD50 = lethal dose, 50 percent kill LDLO = lowest published lethal dose

48 MSDS, Nicotine19 Potential Health Effects
Eye: May cause eye irritation. Skin: May cause skin irritation. May be fatal if absorbed through the skin. Ingestion: May be fatal if swallowed. May cause adverse effects of the musculature. May cause severe digestive tract irritation with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause tremors and convulsions. May cause muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and possible death. Exposure causes initial nervous system stimulation followed by severe CNS depression. May cause ataxia and incoordination. Inhalation: May cause effects similar to those described for ingestion. Chronic: May cause digestive tract and cardiac disturbances.

49 Causes of death in the U.S.20

50 Annual Deaths Attributable to Cigarette Smoking in the U. S

51 Tobacco’s early history22
Tobacco originated in the Americas. 1492: Christopher Columbus brings tobacco to Europe. One crew member is caught smoking by the Inquisition and is imprisoned for being possessed by the Devil. 1565: Tobacco’s popularity has spread throughout Europe 1612: Tobacco is successfully cultivated for the first time as a cash crop in Virginia 1618: Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 1629: Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco. 1660: Slavery appears in the tobacco-growing colonies of Virginia and Maryland. 1775: Virginia and Maryland's combined tobacco production exceeds 100 million pounds.

52 Alcohol in Society

53 AMENDMENT XVIII40 Passed by Congress December 18, 1917
AMENDMENT XVIII40 Passed by Congress December 18, Ratified January 16, Repealed by amendment 21. Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

54 AMENDMENT XXI40 Passed by Congress February 20, 1933
AMENDMENT XXI40 Passed by Congress February 20, Ratified December 5, 1933. Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

55 1984: National Minimum Drinking Age Act forced states to raise their drinking ages to 21 or lose federal highway funding.35 Impact: Proportion of drivers age who were involved in fatal crashes and were intoxicated dropped 33 percent from 1988 to 1998 BUT Proportion of intoxicated drivers aged and 25 or older dropped drastically as well, according to the CDC Drivers age are involved in ~13% of all alcohol-related fatal accidents BUT drivers age are also involved in ~13% of all NON-alcohol-related fatal accidents (blame experience, not alcohol?)

56 State-by-State Laws37 In Alabama, 2 of 3 counties are dry (no production, distribution, or sale of alcohol allowed). However, Alabama permits the sale of fireworks, tobacco and firearms with virtually no restrictions or regulations. Fairbanks, Alaska, is a dry town for moose (It is illegal to feed a moose any alcoholic beverage) In Indiana, liquor stores can’t sell milk or cold soft drinks, but they can sell unrefrigerated soft drinks It is illegal to bring alcohol through a dry county in Mississippi while traveling across the country Nebraska state law prohibits bars from selling beer unless they are simultaneously brewing a kettle of soup

57 In Utah:37 Wine used for wine tastings must not be swallowed.
“Full alcohol service is available only to dues-paying members of private social clubs or a limited number of restaurants that can't advertise, display, or mention the availability of alcohol beverages.” “It's illegal ... to advertise drink prices, alcohol brands, to show a ‘drinking scene,’ to promote happy hour, to advertise free food, or for restaurants to furnish alcohol beverage lists unless a customer specifically requests one.”

58 Exceptions to Minimum Age of 21 for Consumption of Alcohol (APIS, 1/1/2005)27

59 Alcohol and weight36 Drinking alcohol doesn't lead to weight gain, and many studies report a small reduction in weight for women who drink. Probable causes: Research suggests that alcohol energy is not efficiently used Alcohol appears to increase metabolic rate significantly Consumption of sugar may decrease as consumption of alcohol increases Weight gain comes from the tendency to eat more food while drinking, not the alcohol itself

60 Alcohol Myths38 Myth: Drinking coffee can sober a person up
No amount of coffee (or any other drink) can cause alcohol to leave a person’s system faster. Alcohol leaves virtually everyone’s system at a constant rate of % BAC per hour. Myth: Men and women can drink the same, given the same height and weight. Women generally have a higher fat content, so the same amount of alcohol has a higher concentration in their lower water content. Women have less alcohol dehydrogenase in their system, preventing them from metabolizing alcohol as quickly.

61 More myths38 Myth: Binge drinking is an epidemic on college campuses.
To be a binge drinker, one must drink over an “extended period of time (typically at least two days) during which time a person repeatedly becomes intoxicated and gives up his or her usual activities and obligations in order to become intoxicated.” Myth: Alcohol destroys brain cells. There is no scientific evidence that alcohol in moderation contributes to brain cell loss. In fact, moderate drinking is often associated with improved cognitive function.

62 Binge Drinking Binge drinking is defined as having five or more drinks in a row for boys and four or more drinks in a row for girls by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Binge drinking often begins around 13 and increases through adolescence 60 percent of college men and 50 percent of college women are binge drinkers 91 percent of college women who are considered binge drinkers, consider themselves moderate or light drinkers

63 Consequences Vomiting Unconsciousness
Cold, clammy, pale, or bluish skin Slow or irregular breathing Alcohol poisoning Decreased awareness of surroundings

64 Social Consequences In schools with high binge drinking rates
34 percent of non-binge drinkers reported being insulted or humiliated by binge drinkers 13 percent reported being pushed, hit, or assaulted 54 percent reported having to take care of a drunken student 68 percent were interrupted while studying 26 percent of women experienced an unwanted sexual advance

65 Fun facts about alcohol39
Frederick the Great of Prussia tried to ban the consumption of coffee, demanding that the populace drink alcohol instead. The “Bible belt”, which consumes the least alcohol in the U.S., is also known by many doctors as “Stroke Alley”. Temperance activists typically consumed patent medicines that contained up to 40% alcohol (about as much as whiskey). Bourbon is the official spirit of the United States. The U.S. Marines’ first recruiting station was in a bar. Magellan spent more on sherry than on weapons for his trip around the world in 1519.

66 Ethical Concerns

67 Why are these drugs legal in the United States?

68 Cannabis Why is marijuana a controlled substance
when alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are all legal drugs? Cannabis in the Brain

69 References Chudler, Eric H. Neuroscience for Kids. 1 April April Dubuc, Bruno. The Brain from Top to Bottom. 3 April Pollard, Thomas D., and William C. Earnshaw. Cell Biology. Philadelphia: Elsevier, Inc., 2004. Sommer W. H. , C. Arlinde and M. Heilig. “The Search for Candidate Genes of Alcoholism: Evidence from Expression Profiling Studies.” Addiction Biology 10 (2005): 71 – 79. Suvarna, Neesha, Stephanie L. Borgland, Jun Wang, Khanhky Phamluong, Yves P. Auberson, Antonello Bonci, and Dorit Ron. “Ethanol Alters Trafficking and Functional N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor NR2 Subunit Ratio via H-Ras.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005) : 31450–31459. Wirkner K., W. Poelchen, L. KoÈ les, K. MuÈ hlberg, P. Scheibler, C. Allgaier, and P. Illes. “Ethanol-induced inhibition of NMDA receptor channels.” Neurochemistry International 35 (1999): Snel, Jan and Monicque M. Lorist. Nicotine, Caffeine and Social Drinking. Hardwood Academic Publishers: Australia, 1998. Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle and Gayle Gross de Núñez. The Dope on Nicotine. 11 Apr Oct 2001 <> Safety (MSDS) data for nicotine. 11 Apr July 2005 <> NIDA InfoFacts: Cigarettes and Other Nicotine Products. 11 Apr National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mar <> Tobacco Information and Prevention Source. 11Apr National Center For Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, OSH, NCCDPHP. 27 Mar <> Targeting Tobacco Use: The Nation’s Leading Cause of Death At A Glance Apr National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion 7 Apr <> McMurry, John. Organic Chemistry, 6th Ed. California: Thompson Learning, Inc., 2004. Gupta, B.S. & Uma. Caffeine and Behaviour Current Views and Research Trends. New York: CRC Press, 1999.

70 References, continued Goldstein, Avram. Addiction From Biology To Drug Policy. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1994. Dubuc, Bruno. The Brain from Top to Bottom. 3 April Silverthorn, Dee Unglaub. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001. Sheerwood, Lauralee. Human Physiology from Cells to Systems. 5th ed. California: Thompson Learning, Inc., 2004. Garattini, Silvio. Caffeine, Coffee, and Health. New York: Raven Press, 1993. Fleishhacker, W.W. and D.J. Brooks. Addiction Mechanisms, Phenomenology and Treatment: SpringerWeinNewYork, 2003. National Soft Drink Association The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory. “Safety (MSDS) data for caffeine.” Oxford University: 20 July The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory. “Safety (MSDS) data for nicotine.” Oxford University: 8 July “Material Safety Data Sheet: l-Nicotine, 99+%.” Acros Organics N.V. Last revised: 16 Dec “Comparative Causes of Annual Deaths in the United States.” National Center For Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. 26 Jan “Annual Deaths Attributable to Cigarette Smoking - United States, ” CDC SAMMEC, MMWR 2002; Vol. 51, No. 14: Last updated: 24 Feb Tobacco Facts. “From first drag to slavery: tobacco's beginnings (To the late 19th century).” “Death by Caffeine.” Energy Fiend. “Material Safety Data Sheet: Caffeine.” Fisher Scientific. Last revised: 02 Aug “Fact Sheet – Specialty Coffee Fun Facts.” “Coffee Fun Facts.” “Exceptions to Minimum Age of 21 for Consumption of Alcohol as of January 1, 2005.” Alcohol Policy Information System. Last update: 22 Mar

71 References, continued Buckley, Sandra. “The Aftermath of 1984.” Youth Truth. 1(6) Hanson DJ. “Alcohol, calories, and weight.” Hanson DJ. “Alcohol and Drinking Facts in States across the US.” Hanson DJ. “Facts and Fiction.” Hanson DJ. “Alcohol Trivia.” “Constitution of the United States of America.” Grant,Kathryn. Drug Formulary. Lexi-Comp inc Tucson, AZ.

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