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Nicotine and Caffeine Chapter 12. Leaves of the Nicotiana tabacum plant Nicotine History.

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Presentation on theme: "Nicotine and Caffeine Chapter 12. Leaves of the Nicotiana tabacum plant Nicotine History."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nicotine and Caffeine Chapter 12

2 Leaves of the Nicotiana tabacum plant Nicotine History

3 Nicotine Routes of Administration Inhalation Chewing Snorting Transdermal

4 Metabolism of Nicotine liver converts nicotine into metabolites cotinine half life: 2 hrs acute tolerance Nicotine

5 Site of action for nicotine Nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR) –Basic functions of different receptors: Open Na+ channels  increase firing potential Allows Ca 2+ into cell  2 nd messengers Enhances NT release (presynaptic) Nicotine

6 Site of action for nicotine Nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR) –Locations of receptors Neuromuscular junction at muscles PNS CNS –Postsynaptic –Presynaptic membranes of other NT neurons Nicotine

7 Changes in cognitive function Nicotine-induced reduction of reaction time in a rapid visual information processing task Nicotine

8 Activation of mesolimbic dopamine system Time Nicotine

9 Activation of mesolimbic dopamine system Nicotine self-administration in rats first exposed to the drug during adolescence vs. adulthood Nicotine

10 Changes in mood Smokers Non-smokers Nicotine

11 Factors other than Nicotine Whole-body PET scans illustrating reduced MAO-B activity Nicotine

12 Tolerance - acute - chronic Withdrawal symptoms –Decrease heart rate and blood pressure –Irritability –Hunger –Sleep disturbances –GI complaints –Headache –Impairment of concentration Nicotine

13 Effects of smoking on general health Increased risk for: Cancer Cardiovascular disease Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Decreased birth weight in infants for mothers who smoked Nicotine

14 Why do people smoke? Nicotine resource model Deprivation reversal model Positive reinforcement (DA reward system) Substances other than nicotine Genetic factors? Nicotine

15 Treatment of nicotine dependence Nicotine

16

17 Caffeine

18 Absorption and Metabolism Caffeine

19 Mechanism of action Adenosine antagonist Caffeine

20 Withdrawal and Tolerance Time course of caffeine withdrawal in regular users (Part 1) Caffeine

21 Withdrawal and Tolerance Time course of caffeine withdrawal in regular users (Part 2) Caffeine

22 Withdrawal and Tolerance Time course of caffeine withdrawal in regular users (Part 4) Caffeine


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