Presentation on theme: "Research Update 2006 Chiropractic Sports Sciences Symposium Sports Nutrition With Exercise Physiology and General Studies with Practical Application G."— Presentation transcript:
Research Update 2006 Chiropractic Sports Sciences Symposium Sports Nutrition With Exercise Physiology and General Studies with Practical Application G. Douglas Andersen, DC, DACBSP, CCN www.andersEnchiro.com
Caffeine A Simulated Team Sport Study Dbl-blind, randomized, crossover study with 9 Rugby players 7 circuits in two 40 minute halfs with a 10 minute half time 70 minutes prior, they consumed 6mg/kgBW caffeine or placebo Stewart, G.R., Hopkins, W.G., Cook, C., Caims, S.P. Multiple Effects of Caffeine on Simulated High-Intensity Team-Sport Performance. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1998-2005
Caffeine A Simulated Team Sport Study (Cont.) Caffeine Improved: 20m sprint speed Offensive sprint speed Defensive sprint speed Tackle sprint speed 30m sprint speed Passing Accuracy Stewart, G.R., Hopkins, W.G., Cook, C., Caims, S.P. Multiple Effects of Caffeine on Simulated High-Intensity Team-Sport Performance. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1998-2005
Caffeine & Dehydration 59 males (average age 21) were studied for 13 days No caffeine was consumed in the 48 hours prior to the trial The first phase (days 1-6) all subjects consumed 3mg/kgBW caffeine capsules On days 7-11 subjects were divided into 3 blinded groups: 1 = placebo (zero caffeine), 2 = 3mg/kgBW (mean 226 mg/d), 3 = 6 mg/kgBW (mean 452 mg/d) Blood & urine were tested on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 All subjects maintained their normal workouts in a variety of sports Armstrong, L.E., Pumerantz, A.C., Roti, M.W., et al. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Renal indices of Hydration During 11 Days of Controlled Caffeine Consumption. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 252-265
Caffeine & Dehydration (Cont.) Urine Levels Group Zero 3mg/kg 6mg/kg Day 11465mL/24h 1484mL/24h 1593mL/24h 3 1626 1587 1407 6 1605 1347 1641 9 1303 1636 1446 12 1410 1371 1349 There was no evidence of any diuretic effect in healthy active males. Armstrong, L.E., Pumerantz, A.C., Roti, M.W., et al. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Renal indices of Hydration During 11 Days of Controlled Caffeine Consumption. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 252-265
Habitual Caffeine 155,594 U.S. women free of hypertension in 1990-91 and followed 12 years until 2002-03 in the Nurses Health Studies 1 & 11 There was no association between the amount of caffeine consumed and hypertension, and no association between the amount of coffee and hypertension. There was an association between the amount of both sugared and diet cola and hypertension. Winkelmayer, W.C., Stampfer, M.J., Willet, W.C., Curhan, G.C. Habitual Caffeine Intake and the Risk of Hypertension in Women. JAMA. 2005; 294: 2330-2335.
Caffeine Mechanism of actions: Mobilization of free fatty acids Preservation of glycogen Reduction of potassium gradient run down Stimulation of CNS motor control Translocation of calcium to a more favorable membrane position for excitation – contraction coupling in skeletal muscle Stewart, G.R., Hopkins, W.G., Cook, C., Caims, S.P. Multiple Effects of Caffeine on Simulated High-Intensity Team-Sport Performance. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1998-2005
Pseudoephedrine Dbl-Blind randomized cross-over study 7 trained subjects ran 1500 meters 7 days apart 2.5 mg/kg BW pseudoephedrine or maltodextrine 70 minutes before exercise Mean times: Placebo – 4:40 Pseudoephedrine – 4:34 Hodges, K., Hancock, S., Cureell, K., Asker, J. FACSM. University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Pseudoephedrine Enhances 1500 m Running Performance. Med Sci In Sp Ex. 2005; Vol. 37: S43, A230
Ginseng 44 untrained adults, mean age 45 yrs old Panax Notoginseng (PNG) 1350 mg or 1350 mg starch for 30 days Mean time to exhaustion: Pre Post_______ PNG 30:55 + 6:29 33:30 + 8:33 Starch 32:50 + 8:36 34:20 + 1:50 No differences in heart rate, blood pressure, blood chemistry or perceived exertion between PNG & starch Liang, M.T., FACSM, Moreno, A.J., Young, L.K., Chuang, W. Effects of Panax Notoginseng on Aerobic Endurance And Cardiovascular Parameters In Adult Humans. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; Vol. 37: S41, A220
Stretching & Isokinetic Strength 17 women, (mean age 24) each had 3 tests in random order Control – Isokinetic strength test (IST) of dominate knee: flexion & extension. Static – 6 min. of 30 sec. passive stretch of quads & hams each followed by IST PNF – 6 min. of 10 sec. blocks of contract-relax for quads & hams each followed by IST Mello, M.L., Pereira, M., Gomes, P.S.C. Acute Effect of Static and PNF stretching on Dominant Knee Flexion and Extension Strength. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: S183, A951
Stretching & Isokinetic Strength Results Mean Results – Flexion: Peak torque Average power Total set work Control 83.6 57.4 461.4 Static 75.3 49.8 410.6 PNF 74.1 49.8 407.6 Mean Results – Extension: Peak torque Average power Total set work Control 139.4 94.7 764.0 Static 136.2 89.6 732.8 PNF 132.7 87.2 715.1 Mello, M.L., Pereira, M., Gomes, P.S.C. Acute Effect of Static and PNF stretching on Dominant Knee Flexion and Extension Strength. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: S183, 951
Stretching & Isometric Strength 18 Men (mean age 26) each had 3 tests in random order: Control – isometric strength test (IST) of hip adductors Static Stretch – 30 second sets of passive stretching for 2 min. before IST PNF stretch – 10 sec. blocks of contract-relax for 2 min. before IST Peak torque was measured at 45 degrees, 30 degrees, and 15 degrees Peak Torque45degrees30degrees15degrees Control175169154 Static159152146 PNF153151142 Rubini, E.D., Pereira, M., Gomes, P.S.C. Acute Effect of Static & PHF Stretching on Hip Abductor Isometric Strength. Med Sci Sp Ex 2005, Vol. 37, S183, A953
Glycerol (GLY) Literature review of pre-event hydration studies concerning GLY & water 1.0 – 1.2 g/kgBW GLY 2 – 2.5 hours per-event GLY increased fluid retention 6 ml/kg BW 50% of the studies showed GLY improved performance in thermoneutral conditions 67% of the studies showed GLY improved performance in hot conditions In the negative studies, the largest increase in fluid retention was 1.5 ml/kgBW Goulet, E.D., Sharp, R.L., FACSM, Plante, G.E., Melancon, M.O., Dionne, I.J. Systematic Review Of The Effects OF Glycerol Hyperhydration On Endurance Performance During Compensable Exercise Stress. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: S40, A219
Glutamine and Intestinal Permeability Literature review of Glutamine and the critically ill. Glutamine improves the prognosis of critically ill patients by reducing intestinal permeability and which leads to a reduced frequency of infection. DeSouza, D.A., Greene, L.J., Intestinal Permeability and Systemic Infection In Critically Ill Patients: Effects of Glutamine. J Crit Care. 2005; 33: 1125-1135.
Glutamine 12 males (19 to 23 yrs old) took 2 servings after workout and 2 servings at bed time on workout days of 10 grams of Glutamine. Six took placebo (10gr glucose) twice after workouts and at bedtime on workout days 7 weeks of bench, military, and squat workouts Strength Increase – Glutamine - 16.7% Glucose - 15.9% Body Fat Loss – Glutamine – 0.6% Glucose – 0.4% Thistlethwaite, J.R., Swanson, S.C., Scheuerrmann, B.W. The Effect Of Glutamin On Muscle Strength And Body Composition. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: S45, A240
Echinacea (E) & Erythropoietin (EPO) Animal cell culture studies indicate E causes EPO to increase 24 males (12 took 8gr/d of E. Purpurea and 12 took wheat flour placebo) for 2 weeks Mean EPO increase was 44% in E group and 23% in Placebo group Whitehead, M.T., Martin, T.D., Webster, M.J., FACSM, Scheett, T.P. Two Weeks of Oral Echinacea Supplementation Significantly Increases Circulating Erythropoietin. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: S43, A231
Forskolin From ayurvedic herb coleus Furskohlii 12 week Double-blind, placebo-controlled study 30 overweight males (15-Forskolin, 250mg of 10% extract) BID & 15 Placebo BID F group lost body fat (4% vs. 1%) and fat mass (4.5kg vs..5kg) F Group gained lean mass (3.7 kg vs. 1.6kg) and total testosterone (.69ng/ml vs. -.11ng/ml) Godard, M.P., Johnson, B.A., Richmond, S.R., Olson, B.D. Body Composition and Hormonal Adaptation Associated With Forskolin Consumption In Overweight and Obese Males. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: S39, A211
Glucosamine and Chondroitin Major G&C trial using 5 treatments over 24 weeks 1,583 subjects with knee Osteoarthritis (1,229 mild. 304 moderate to severe) Primary outcome was a 20% reduction in pain using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Clegg, D.O., Reda, D.J., Harris, C.L., et al. Glucosamine, Chrondoitin Sulphate, and the Two in Combination for Painful Knee Osteoarthritis. NEJM. 2006; 354: 795-808
Glucosamine and Chondroitin Results Percent of each group that achieved a 20% decrease in WOMAC Pain Score: Treatment Mild OA Mod. To Severe OA Placebo61.7%54% G-HCL(500mg TID)63.6%65.7% C-Sulphate (400mg TID)66.5%61.4% G&C (500/400 mg TID)62.9%79.2% Celebrex (200mg)70.3%69.4% Clegg, D.O., Reda, D.J., Harris, C.L., et al. Glucosamine, Chrondoitin Sulphate, and the Two in Combination for Painful Knee Osteoarthritis. NEJM. 2006; 354: 795-808
Oxygenated Water Study #1 9 cyclists completed 2 trials separated by 2 weeks Exercise testing was preceeded by 3 days of 35 ml/kgBW of either water or oxygenated (water which was considerably more than normally consumed) No difference in time to exhaustion (76.3 min. vs, 76.4 min O 2 vs. H 2 0) HR, RPE, lactate, blood gasses, hydration status Wing-Gaia, S.L., Subudhi, A.W., Askew, E.W. Effects of Purified Oxygenated Water on Exercise Performance During Acute Hypoxic Exposure. In J Sport Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 680-688.
Oxygenated Water Study #2 Double-blind, placebo controlled study 15 endurance athletes(mean VO 2 max 54.8) Plain water vs. O 2 water No change in VO 2 max, blood lactate, time to exhaustion O 2 content of plain water was 6.0 mg O 2 /L O 2 content of O water was 13.1 mg/ O 2 /L Mielke, M., Okroy, J., FACSM, Torok, D., et al. Florida Atlantic University, Davie, FL. Oxygenated Water Does Not Improve Endurance Exercise Performance. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37,: S44, A236
Phosphatidylserine 16 male soccer players – 90 min. simulated exercise protocol (45 min. drills-10 min. half-30 min. drills & multi-stage fitness test to exhaustion) 2 weeks later it was repeated 10 days prior to second bout, subjects took 750 mg PS or glucose placebo (P) daily PS did not reduce serum cortisol, markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase & myoglobin) or lipid peroxidation Time to exhaustion improved 4% in PS group Kingsley, M.I., Wadsworth, D., Kilduff, L.P., et al. Effects of Phosphatidylserine on Oxidative Stress Following Intermittent Running. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1300-1306
Phophatidylserine (PS) Follow-up Study 14 male cyclists were familiarized with test protocol: 10 minutes @ 45% VO 2 max & 5 minutes rest 10 minutes @ 55% VO 2 max & 5 minutes rest 10 minutes @ 65% VO 2 max & 5 minutes rest 85% VO 2 max to exhaustion 5 days after ride 1 took either 750mg PS (n = 7) or 750 mg glucose polymer placebo (n = 7) for 10 days and then repeated ride protocol Kingsley, M.L., Miller, M., Kilduff, L.P., et al. Effects of Phosphattidylserine on Exercise Capacity during Cycling in ActivE Males. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006; 38: 64-70
Phophatidylserine (PS) Follow-up Study Results Results: Time to exhaustion:Ride 1Ride 2 PS7:51 + 1:369:51 + 1:42 P8:09 + 0:548:02 + 0:54 PS did not effect serum cortisol or glucose, blood lactate, or substitute oxidation. Kingsley, M.L., Miller, M., Kilduff, L.P., et al. Effects of Phosphattidylserine on Exercise Capacity during Cycling in ActivE Males. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006; 38: 64-70
D-Ribose 3 grams of Ribose (25 min. prior to 5 x 30 sec. sprints with 45 sec. passive rest between sets) in a double-blind, cross-over of 12 male cyclists (mean age 22) D-ribose had no effect on peak power, average power, total work, rate of fatigue or levels of glucose, lactate, and ammonia Kerksick, C., Rasmussen, C., Bowden, R., et al. Effects of Ribose Supplementation Prior to and During Intense Exercise on Anaerobic Capacity and Metabolic Markers. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 653-664.
L-Carnitine 3 grams of L-Carnitine tartrate for 4 weeks or placebo followed by a 2 week washout and the reverse treatment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design of 15 trained males Carnitine levels rose significantly when it was consumed No effect on substrate use during 90 min. ride or 20 k time trial (~30 min.) No change in FFA’s, glucose, pH, adrenaline, glycerol Broad, E.M., Maughan, Galloway, R. J., S.D.R. Effects of Four Weeks L-carnitine L-tartrate Ingestion on Substrate Utilization During Prolonged Exercise. In J Sport Nutr Ex Metab.2005; 15: 665-679
L-Carnitine Burns Carbs, Not Fat 12 triathletes (6 male, 6 female. Mean age 25) tested after 2 wks of 3 different treatments 14 days of 3 gr glucose placebo 13 days of placebo and 1 day of 3gr L-Carnitine tartrate 14 days of L-Carnitine 3gr a day 3 hours after each treatment on day 14, 1 hour cycle test Results In males, 2 wks of L-carnitine increased carbohydrate oxidation during 60 min. 60% VO 2 max cycle exercise. In females, both 1 day and 2 wks of Carnitine increased carbohydrate oxidation during the exercise ride. In males and females fat oxidation during exercise was greatest with placebo. Abramowicz, W.N., Galloway, S.D.R. Effects of Acute Versus Chronic L-Carnitine L-tartrate Supplementation on Metabolic Responses to Steady State Exercise in Males and Females. In J Sp NutrEx. Metab. 2005; 15: 386-400
Nutrient Timing Double-blind, randomized study, 17 regular weight lifters Subjects were matched for strength and their divided into groups A whey, creatine, glucose supplement at 1gm/kgBW twice daily on the four workout days per week of the same intense 10 week program Supplement was taken either per and post workout or early AM and late PM Cribb, P.J., Hayes, A. The Effect Of Supplement Timing On Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Strength and Body Composition During Resistance Training. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: S419, A2188
Nutrient Timing (Continued) Pre/Post AM/PM Lean mass +2.7kg +1.45kg Squat +20.4kg +16.1kg Bench +12.1kg +8.9kg Pre/Post also had higher creatine and glycogen levels than AM/PM. Cribb, P.J., Hayes, A. The Effect Of Supplement Timing On Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Strength and Body Composition During Resistance Training. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: S419, A2188
Diet Diary One year trial of 224 obese adults Compared 1)Medication only 2)Lifestyle modification & counseling 3) A combination therapy of 1&2 The Combination group lost more weight than med only or lifestyle only groups Subanalysis revealed that those in the combo group who kept diet diary’s lost a mean of 40 pounds compared to a 17 pound mean loss of those who didn’t regularly track their food intake. Waddne, T.A., Berkowitz, R.I., Wombie, L.G., et al. Randomized Trial of Lifestyle Modification and Pharmacotherapy for Obesity. New Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 2111-2120
Dietary Modification 48,000 women (19,000 intervention) 29,000 controls Followed for a mean of 7.5 years Reducing dietary fat and replacing it with vegetables, fruits, and grains did not increase body weight. Howard, B.V., Manson, J.E., Stefanick, M.L., et al. Low-fat Dietary Pattern and Weight Change over Seven Years: The Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006; 295: 39-49.
Alcohol and Androgen Receptors Chronic alcohol use reduces the amount of androgen receptors on type 2B muscle fibers. Vingren, J.L., Koziris, L.P., Gordon, S.E., et al. Chronic Alcohol Intake, Resistance Training, Muscle Androgen Receptor Content Med Sci Sp Ex. 2006; 37: 1842-1848.
Oral Creatine Effects 20 men (mean age 24) took 21gr/d of creatine for 14 days Urine and analysis revealed an increase in both methlyamine and formaldehyde excretion Short-term, high-use oral creatine supplementation enhances the excretion of potential cytotoxic compounds but does not have any detrimental effects on kidney permeability. Poortmans, J.R., Kumps, A., Duez, P., et al. Effect of Oral Creatine Supplementation on Urinary Methylamin, Formaldehyde, and Formate. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1717-1720.
Carbs and Prolonged Exercise Double-blind test of 9 cyclists 6.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink vs. placebo for 2 hour 70% VO 2 Carbohydrate ingestion enhances feeling of well being during exercise. Backhouse, S.H., Bishop, N.C., Biddle, S.J., Williams, C. Effects of Carbohydrate and Prolonged Exercise on Affect and Perceived Exertion. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1768-1773.
Sweat and Sodium losses in NCAA Football Players. 5 NCAA Football players with history of cramps 5 matched controls Comparing cramping to non-cramping groups revealed a wide variability of fluid loss in both groups. Sweat potassium was stable. Sweat sodium was 2 times higher in the cramping group compared to the non-cramping group. Stofan, J.R., Zachwieja, J.j., Horswill, C.A., Murray, R., et al. Sweat and Sodium Losses in NCAA Football Players: A precursor to Heat Cramps? In J Sport Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 641-652.
Exercise Associated Muscle Cramping Triathletes after an Ironman Triathlon who cramped (n = 11) were compared to non-cramping controls ( n = 9) matched for body mass and finishing time. There were no differences between groups for magnesium, potassium, chloride, and glucose. The cramping group had a “statistically significant lower post-race serum sodium” than the non-cramping controls. The authors stated the difference was “not clinically significant as the serum sodium concentrations in both groups fell within standard norms.” Sulzer, N.U., Schwellnus, M.p., Noakes, T.D. Serum Electrolytes in Ironman Triathletes with Exercise Associated Muscle Cramping. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1081-1085
Hydration and Energy during Soccer-specific Exercise 7 ml/kgBW of water before & at half-time 7 ml/kgBW of sports drink before & at half-time 7 ml/kgBW of sports drink in 6 smaller servings There is no change in performance when the same amount of carbohydrates was given prior to and at half time of the match compared to the same amount divided into 6 servings (every 15 minutes). Clarke, N.D., Drust, B., MacLaren, D.P.M., Reilly, T. Strategies for Hydration and Energy Provision During Soccer-Specific Exercise. In J Sport Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 625-640.
Carbs and Insulin 7 women ate high or low glycemic index breads for 3 weeks with a 3 week washout between treatments All 7 lowered their insulin response to an IV glucose challenge after 3 weeks of high fiber bread by 35% Substituting high-fiber carbohydrate for low-fiber carbohydrate reduces insulin response Ostman, E.M., Frid, A.H., Groop, L.C., Bjorck, I.M.E. A Dietary Exchange of Common Bread for Tailored Bread of Low Glycaemic Index Rich in Dieatry Fiber Improved Insulin Economy in young Women with Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005: 1-8
Carb-Protein beverage and Recovery after running 10% Carb drink vs. 8% Carb/2% Protein drink The carbohydrate drink with protein added did not improve subsequent performance after recovery, but there was less soreness following activity. Millard-Stafford, M., Warren, G.L., Thomas, L.M., et al. Recovery from Run Training: Efficacy of a Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage? In J Sport Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 610-624.
Metabolic Responses to Glycemic Index 7 males (mean age 23 yrs old) High GI dinner (72) or Low GI dinner (34) Following a high GI breakfast next AM, six blood & expired air samples were taken over 3 hours prior to a 1 hour run. Blood glucose & insulin were lower with the LGI dinner for 3 hours even though the same high GI breakfast was consumed Plasma FFA & blood lactate were unchanged No difference in rate of carb or fat oxidation during the run No difference in run performance Subjects were not as hungry at breakfast following LGI dinner even though protein, carb, fat, and calories were the same (P-63gr, C-149gr, F-25gr, Cal- 1075 Consuming a low glycemic index meal at dinner can improve glucose tolerance at breakfast, but did not appear to affect subsequent exercise Stevenson, E., Williams, C., Nute, M., et al. The effect of Glycemic Index of an Evening Meal on the Metabolic Responses to a Standard High Glycemic Index Breakfast and Subsequent Exercise in Men. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 308-322.
Glycemic Index & Recovery 8 male runners participated in 2 experimental trials 7 days apart. They knew they were being tested, but had no idea What for. They didn’t exercise 24 hours prior to each test. They ate the same foods 48 hours prior to each test. Test was a 90 minute run on an empty stomach@ 70% VO 2 max followed by the recovery diet. Run repeated the next morning on empty stomach to exhaustion. Both high GI (70) and low GI (35) recovery diets were 17%P, 72%C, and 11%F. Stevenson, E., Williams, C., McComb, G., Oran. C. Improved Recovery from Prolonged Exercise Following the Consumption of Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrate Meals. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 333-349.
Glycemic Index and Recovery Results Low GIHigh GI Avg. Run Time to Exhaustion 109 min. 97 Min. Pre-run #2 hunger (next morning) No Yes Ran faster 7 1 Fat Oxidation Higher Carb Oxidation Higher Higher rate of fat oxidation was ergogenic and may be due to greater intramuscular triacylglycerol resynthesis. Stevenson, E., Williams, C., McComb, G., Oran. C. Improved Recovery from Prolonged Exercise Following the Consumption of Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrate Meals. In J Sp Nutr Metab. 2005; 15: 333-349.
Glycogen Depletion & Glycemic Index In the previous study after each 90 minute run, the subjects received either a high or low GI breakfast 30 minutes after running, followed by a high or low GI lunch 2 hours later. Stevenson, E., Williams, C., Biscoe, H. The Metabolic Responses to High-Carbohydrate Meals with Different Glycemic Indices Consumed During Recovery from Prolonged, Strenuous Exercise. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 291-307
Elk Velvet Antler (EVA) 46 rowers (25 male & 21 female) 10 weeks of training with 560mg EVA or placebo EVA did not affect testosterone, growth hormone, or cortisol either during or following exercise - nor did it improve rowing performance. Syrotulk, D.G., MacFadyen, K.L., Harber, V.J., Bell, G.J. Effect of Elk Velvet Antler Supplementation on The Hormonal Response to Acute and Chronic Exercise in Male and Female Rowers. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 366-385
Tyrosine Double-blind cross-over of 20 males (average age 32) Tyrosine 150mg/kgBW Treadmill with a backpack 30% of BW for 2 hours followed by handgrip test, pull-ups, and stair climbing with 44 pounds. Tyrosine is a precursor to epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. It is in many over-the-counter energy drinks. Ten grams before exercise did not have any effect on maximal strength, endurance, or power. Sutton, E.E., Coll, M.R., Deuster, P.A. Ingestion of Tyrosine: Effects on Endurance, Muscle Strength, and Anaerobic Performance. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 173-185.
HMB Reduces CK Beta hydroxy beta methyl butyrate (HMB) 3 grams/d for 14 days or placebo was given to six subjects & then reversed Subjects performed 3 sets of 10 reps of 1 arm dumbbell curls at 70% of 1 rep with a 10 sec. Negative on each of 30 reps. Creatine kinase, a marker of sarcolemmal damage showed it rose from 147 IU/L baseline to 312 IU/L in placebo HMB use blunted CK in all subjects with mean peak 154.5 IU/L 1 hour post exercise with no changes for the remaining 71 hours tested. HMB supplementation reduced the signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in males following a single bout of eccentrically-based resistance exercise. Van Sommen, K.A., Edwards, A.J., Howatson, J. Supplementation with β-hydroxy- β-methyl butyrate (HMB) and Alpha-ketoisocaproic Acid (KIC) Reduces signs and Symptoms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Men. In J Sp Nutr Ex Metab. 2005; 15: 413-424
Proanthocyanidans & Edema 169 subjects completed trial 89 placebo, 81 Pycnogenol (aka Pine-Bark Extract) Dose - 200mg 2 hours prior & 200mg 4 hours into long flight (12-18 hours) or placebo Ankle edema increased 18% with Pycnogenol, and 58% with placebo Pycnogenol supplementation reduced the level of edema following a long flight Cesrone, M.R., Belcaro, G., Rohdewald, P., et al. Prevention of Edema in Long Flights with Pycenogenol. Clin Appl Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2005; 105: 1433-1437.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cortical Function 33 healthy fit adults (age 22-51) 16 matched controls 35 days of olive oil placebo or fish oil 8 capsules totaled 4 grams of oil (200mg) EPA 200 DHA 100mg per capsule 2.4 grams of Omega 3’s AA/EPA ratio decreased from 14:1 to 4:1 fish oil (No change in olive oil) Profile of mood status testing revealed the following: anger, anxiety, fatigue, depression, and confusion all decreased with fish oil. Sustained attention was increased with fish oil Omega-3 supplementation is associated with improved complex cortical processing. Fontani, g., Corradeschi, F., Fellici, A., et al. Cognitive and Physiologic Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Healthy Subjects Subjects. Eur J Clin Investig. 2005; 35: 691-699.
Women and Calcium Consumption 178 women, average age 52 Calcium absorption fraction was measured by dual tracer method Taller women absorb more calcium than shorter women. Barger-Lux, M.J., Heaney, R.P. Calcium Absorptive Efficiency is Positively Related to Body Size. J Clin Endocrinal Metab. 2005; 90: 5118-5120.
Calcium and Vitamin D Fail Women’s Health Initiative – 40 centers, Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 36,000 + subjects 18,000 received 2 does of 500 mg calcium and 200/IU of vitamin D for 7 years Conclusion of two studies; calcium & vit D have no effect on reducing risk of fracture or colorectal cancer Jackson, R.D., LaCroix, A.Z., Gass, M., et al. Calcium plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Fractures. NEJM. 2006; 354: 669-683 Wactawski-Wende, J., Kotchen, J.M., Anderson, G.L., et al. Calcium plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer. NEJM. 2006; 354: 684-696
Calcium and Vitamin D Fail (Continued) Sub group analysis showed those who were the most compliant did have fewer hip fractures 64% of placebo group had 800mg/d calcium intake from diet 42% of placebo group had 700 IU/d vitamin D intake Over 50% in both groups were on hormone replacement therapy The amount of calcium & vitamin D was lower than what reduced risk in the polyp-recurrence trials Subjects with lower serum vitamin D levels had higher risk of colorectal cancer. Jackson, R.D., LaCroix, A.Z., Gass, M., et al. Calcium plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Fractures. NEJM. 2006; 354: 669-683 Wactawski-Wende, J., Kotchen, J.M., Anderson, G.L., et al. Calcium plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer. NEJM. 2006; 354: 684-696
Fracture and Vitamin D Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Included 5 RCI’s for hip fracture (n = 9294) 7 RCI’s for non-vertebral fracture (n = 9280) Conclusion: 100% of RDA for vitamin D (400 IU) is not sufficient for fracture prevention Oral dose of 700-800 IU/d is minimum necessary to reduce risk of fracture Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Willet, W.C., Wong, J.B., et al. Fracture Prevention With Vitamin D Supplementation. JAMA 2005; 293: 2257-2264
Low Fitness Level National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey 3,110 Adolescents, aged 12-19 34.4% of adolescent females and 32.9% of adolescent males had a low fitness level. Carnethon, M.R., Gulati, M., Greenland, P. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Correlates of Low Cardio respiratory Fitness in Adolescents and Adults. JAMA. 2005; 294: 2981-2988
Physical Activity & Longevity Data from the original Framingham Heat Study on physical activity was analyzed Physical activity levels were established as high-medium-low based on estimated 0 2 consumption for each activity 3 pooled non-overlapping 12 year periods on the efforts of activity in persons 50 and older (n = 9033) Life ExpectancyModerate activityHigh Activity Men+1.3 year+3.7 years Women+1.5 years+3.5 years Franco, O.H., deLaet, C., Petters, A., et al. Effects of Physical Activity on Life Expectancy with Cardiovascular Disease. Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165: 2355-2360
Low Intensity Exercise for Weight Loss is Not Advantageous 10 male & 4 female endurance training subjects ran 8,000 m (5 miles) at either 95% or 70% of individual anaerobic threshold. Results (Group Average): 70% 95% VO2 max % 56 78.5 Heart rate 138 168 Calories burned 2554 2650 Fat (grams) 26 20 Carbs (grams) 90 108 Time 50:35 37:17 Cals burned 10 Min, post ex. 138 180 Rosenberger, F., Meyer, T., Kinderman, N. W. Running 8000 Meters Fast or Slow: Are There Differences in Energy Cost and Fat Metabolism? Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1789-1793
Metabolism and Repeated Sprints When total work is matched, high-intensity sprinting results in greater improvements in repeated sprint ability than medium-intensity sprinting. Edge, J., Bishop, D., Goodman, C., and Dawson, B. Effects of High and Moderate-Intensity Training on Metabolism and Repeated Sprints. Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1975-1982
Bowles, K.A., Steele, J.R., Chaunchaiyakul, R. Do Current Sports Brassiere Designs Impede Respiratory Function? Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1633-1640 “The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast hypertrophy, breast momentum, and/or wearing a sports brassiere impeded respiratory function at rest and/or activity.”
Bowles, K.A., Steele, J.R., Chaunchaiyakul, R. Do Current Sports Brassiere Designs Impede Respiratory Function? Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1633-1640 The complete absence of visual aids made it impossible for this examiner to properly interpret the findings
Bowles, K.A., Steele, J.R., Chaunchaiyakul, R. Do Current Sports Brassiere Designs Impede Respiratory Function? Med Sci Sp Ex. 2005; 37: 1633-1640 I suspect female doctors would have a genetic advantage to comprehend the information presented in this study for the simple reason that the maturity gene required for processing this class of data is defective in a large percentage of males.