Presentation on theme: "The World’s Most Popular Drug Christopher Ryan Emeral Diaz Hitesh Bhakta Jacob Salmon."— Presentation transcript:
The World’s Most Popular Drug Christopher Ryan Emeral Diaz Hitesh Bhakta Jacob Salmon
Introduction For this presentation, we wanted the opportunity to research a drug that most people are familiar with and consume every single day. It is one of the world’s most popular psychoactive drugs and is found in many different forms. This drug is a stimulant; it is potentially addicting, and can cause withdrawal symptoms.
Can you guess, which drug this is?
Caffeine The objective of this presentation is to provide little known facts about caffeine, discuss the importance, and outline the effects of the drug once it enters our body.
American Caffeine Consumption Each year Americans consume 45 millions pounds of caffeine. On average each person consumes 2.6 cups of coffee a day or 363.5 mg of caffeine. In the US, more than 80% of adults consume caffeine on a daily basis. o Among individuals that do not drink caffeine the average intake is still ~91mg/day Over 450,000,000 cups of coffee are consumed in the USA every day! 4
Fast Facts about Caffeine Each year 120,000 tons of caffeine are consumed. The average daily consumption of caffeine among adults is 200 mg/day. Women metabolize caffeine about 25% faster than men. Contrary to popular belief, caffeine (or coffee) won't help someone sober up if they have had too much to drink
History of Caffeine Responsible for the modern world. It became popular in Europe at the start of the industrial revolution, and served as a substitution for beer. Humans were forced to adapt as the job force switched from farming to industrial (indoor) jobs o Artificial light and caffeine became the way to adjust to new types of jobs; workdays were no longer regulated by just sunlight. It was believed that disease incidence would decrease due to the boiling of water for coffee or tea.
Caffeine Today Reasons for using caffeine are very similar to those of the past. It is still used as a way to increase alertness. And in addition it is used to improve memory, stimulate the body, and enhance one’s mood. ** Especially for us college students! **
Where is Caffeine found? Harvested from plants but can be synthetically made. Not only found in coffee and energy drinks, but also in some unlikely places like: o chocolate, gum, and migraine medicine. Concentration can vary depending on the source, where it comes from, and how it is made. (Table 1)
Table 1: Caffeine Content in a Variety of Sources. 351 stickJolt Caffeinated Gum 2001 tabletNoDoz Maximum Strength 1302 tabletsExcedrin, Extra Strength 91.55 ozHershey's Chocolate Bar 728Full Throttle 808Rockstar 808.3Red Bull 3512Diet Pepsi 3812Pepsi 5412Mountain Dew 4712Diet Coke 3512Coca Cola Classic 24-505Tea 641Espresso 33016Starbucks Coffee Grande 2-55Decaf Coffee 40-1805Coffee (Brewed) Caffeine content per Serving (mg) Serving Size (fl. oz)
Molecular Formula: C8H10N4O2 Molecular Weight : 194.19 Medically known as trimethylxanthine. Caffeine Chemistry Figure 1: Caffeine Structure
Absorption Absorption from the GI tract takes approximately 45 minutes while peak plasma plasma concentration peaks 15 to 120 min after consumption Caffeine can pass through all types of membranes because it is hydrophobic in nature There is no blood-brain or blood-placental barrier. o Cause of premature birth weight in infants
Metabolism Takes place in the liver with help from Cytochrome P450, where it is metabolized into three seperate substances Figure 2: Caffeine derivatives
Metabolism Paraxanthine: Increases lipolysis, leading to elevated glycerol and free fatty acid levels in the blood plasma. Also increases the amounts of Ca++ in the skeletal muscle Theobromine: Dilates blood vessels and mildly increases urine production. Theophylline: Relaxes smooth muscles of the bronchi, and is used to treat asthma.Can cause nausea and irregular heartbeat Each of these metabolites is further metabolized and then excreted in the urine.
Figure 1: Metabolism of Caffeine
Caffeine and Adenosine: a battle over receptor sites. Adenosine is the primary sleep mechanism and causes drowsiness because it slows neural cell activity. Caffeine increases alertness by binding to adenosine receptors in the brain, inhibiting the normal response.
Mechanism of Action Primarily stimulates the CNS. Tolerance to caffeine is associated with increased adenosine receptor activity and a shifting of A1 receptors to a high affinity state Phosphodiesterase inhibition - this enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of cAMP and therefore this action of the methylxanthines leads to increased cAMP
Mechanism of Action 2nd messenger functions.Action at Ca++ channels to increase entry of Ca++ into cells and to decrease sarcolemma sequestration of Ca++. This may be related to the weak positive inotropic effect of the drug at high dose rates. Binding to GABA receptors at the benzodiazepine site.
Half-life Humans: 2.5-5.7 hours. o The same study showed that individuals with a compromised liver have an extended half life. o During neonatal development half-life increases to 100 hours due to decreased activity of cytochrome P-450. Rats/Mouse: 0.7- 1.2 hours Monkey: 3-5 hours
Overdose LD50 X>300 milligrams per kilogram of body mass o Dependent on body weight/tolerance o To Receive a lethal overdose is hard to achieve; however with caffeine pills it becomes very easy. o If consumed little as 3-20 grams you can be hospitalized. In short amount of time. Death resulting from Ventricular Fibrillation, due to the effect of caffeine on the cardiovascular system. 1,2,3
Toxicity Pregnancy o Consuming over 200mg per/day significantly increases the rate of miscarriage. Children o Stunts Growth Memory (Low Dose in mice) o Slows development of hippocampus-dependent learning and impaired long-term memory in mice Via inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis. 1,2
Minor Overdose Effects Excess of 300 milligrams (dependent on body weight/tolerance) Causes over-stimulation in Central Nervous System Common Problems o restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushing of the face, increased urination, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, a rambling flow of thought and speech, irritability, irregular or rapid heart beat, and psycho motor agitation. 3
Major Overdose Effects Mania Depression Lapses in judgment Disorientation Disinhibition Delusions Hallucinations and psychosis may occur Rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue) can be provoked. Lethal intoxication when blood concentration = 500 mM caffeine
Interactions with Ethanol Mechanism of Coffee's "sobering" effects. o Ethanol consumption causes an increase in adenosine levels which makes you feel tired. o The vasoconstricting properties of caffeine prevent the extra adenosine from binding to its receptors, combined with the competitive binding of caffeine to those same binding sites leads to the reduced sensation of fatigue that is so often reported.
Interactions with Nicotine- Do smokers really drink more coffee? Smokers on average drink 50% more coffee, than non-smokers. Smokers actually metabolize caffeine approximately 50% faster as well. o Ex-smokers also metabolize caffeine at a faster rate, but its exact mechanism is not fully understood. Drinking coffee also increases the number of cigarretes smoked, especially during periods of the day that have increased coffee consumption.
Caffeine and Cancer A study by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: found that a moderate amount of exercise and caffeine in mice Decreases the risk of skin cancer because the rate of apoptosis is increased in cells damaged by UV rays The study also found, that the amount of fat in these organisms was significantly decreased more than just running or drinking caffeine separately.
Caffeine in Spiders When Exposed: Webs varied in size, length of thread, organization, density and structure. Excess caffeine caused issues with proper techniques in construction of webs Animal Studies
Caffeine in Mice: Caffeine was added to the dendritic spines of mice via In Vitro methodolgy. Resulting in growth by 33% and formed new stems, later returning to their original sizes. In another study: -100 milligrams of caffeine increased the size of the frontal lobe (memory) and the anterior cingulated cortex (attention) -The caffeinated subjects did perform better with memory task 1
Benefits of Caffeine Parkinson's disease Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston have concluded that regular caffeine consumption leads to a lower risk of developing Parkinson’s by up to 80%. Caffeine reduces the amount of neurotransmitters produced by the brain, which may cause damage to surrounding brain tissue. Gallstones Those who drink two to three cups of regular coffee a day have about a 20 percent lower risk of gallstones than non-drinkers. o Caffeine may stimulate the gallbladder to contract, emptying stone- forming cholesterol and bile
Benefits of Caffeine Mental Performance Improves alertness and reaction time Stimulates the central system as it simultaneously lowers blood sugar and increases the brain's demand for sugar. Resulting in a temporary lift. Mood Increase in positive mood including an increased state of well- being, happiness, energy, arousal, alertness, and sociability. Physical Performance Caffeine helps the body burn fat instead of carbohydrates, and it lowers levels of perceived pain. Improvements in aerobic physical endurance and anaerobic performance.
Benefits Headache During a headache blood vessels dialate, but caffeine causes blood vessels to constrict relieving the pain. It is a mild analgesic. Helps the body absorb headache medications more quickly. Can makes pain relievers more effective by upregulating them. Heart Health Coffee is full of antioxidants. Moderate coffee intake can help prevent some cardiovascular problems. Women who drink two to three cups of coffee a day have a 25% lower risk of heart disease and an 18% lower risk of developing diseases other than cancer than non-coffee drink
Cost: Sleep Insomnia is common when taken before bed. Disease risk Inhibits the absorption of iron and calcium from food, leading to an increased risk for development of osteoporosis.(Journal of AMA; JAMA, 26 Jan. 1994, p. 280-3.) Increased susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. o Correlation between coffee consumption and a biochemical marker for rheumatism. o Those who consume four cups daily are twice as likely to test positive for arthritis.
Cost: Dehydration Caffeine has a mild diuretic effect, increasing the possibility of dehydration during exercise. Reduced flow of blood to the brain from 10% to 20% Withdrawal symptoms can occur after regular consumption of just a single cup per day. Reproduction Caffeine reduces rates of sperm motility. High levels of caffeine intake may delay conception among fertile women. (Am J Epidemiol1997; 145: 324–34.)
Results and Discussion Caffeine use is wide spread. Effects in humans differ depending on body composition, metabolism rates, and stage of development Found in many common products that are consumed everyday (making acute overdoses easy to come by) Has both rewards and costs to user Socially acceptable in most cultures.
Summary and Conclusions Caffeine in moderation is helpful to the human body; however Caffeine has the ability to reduce the chances of Parkinson's disease with moderate use. short term memory is increased momentarily.
Summary and Conclusions Caffeine addiction is real and can cause serious and detrimental effects on ones health. Over consumption and disregard for the bodies limitations can effectively result in damage to vital organs as well as long term kidney damage. Can result in long-term memory loss and in the inability to think creatively.
Summary and Conclusions Caffeine is one of the most widely utilized drugs in the world. Rewards include: Alertness Prolonged Susceptibility to sleep Some Studies Show Increased performance Costs Include: Anxiety Irretability Restlessness
Tolerance: SOME people develop tolerances to caffeine in certain aspects Over time, a person can become acclimated to the initial increase in blood pressure associated with occasional caffeine use. Or Opposite desired effect (tiredness) arises. Withdrawal effects: Some characteristics of physical drug dependance with long term use Urge to re-administer not as strong as other addictive stimulants Does not appear to be a major issue Summary and Conclusion
Summary and Conclusions Possible new hypothesis to test: Long term effects of caffeine in combination with supplements found in energy drinks Increasing risk of caffeine overdoses due to the trends of rising concentrations and availability of caffeinated products. Caffeine's effect on memory in college students and their study habits.
Dealing With a Caffeine Overdose Immediately Call National Poison Control Center at 1-800- 222-1222. Do NOT make the person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a doctor. In an emergency room, as treatment, expect o Activated charcoal o Laxative o Tube through the nose into the stomach to wash out the stomach (gastric lavage) Always use caffeine containing products in moderation and remember everything is toxic! 5
References 1.Lesk VE, Womble SP. (2004). "Caffeine, priming, and tip of the tongue: evidence for plasticity in the phonological system". Behavioral Neuroscience. 118 (2): 453–61. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.118.3.453. PMID 15174922.doi10.1037/0735-7044.118.3.453PMID 15174922 2.^ Han ME, Park KH, Baek SY, et al (May 2007). "Inhibitory effects of caffeine on hippocampal neurogenesis and function". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 356 (4): 976–80. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.086. PMID 17400186.doi10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.086PMID 17400186 3.^ Kamijo, Y; Soma K, Asari Y, Ohwada T (December 1999). "Severe rhabdomyolysis following massive ingestion of oolong tea: caffeine intoxication with coexisting hyponatremia". Veterinary and Human Toxicology 41 (6): 381–3. doi:10.1152/physrev.00004.2004. PMID 10592946.doi10.1152/physrev.00004.2004PMID 10592946
References Continued 4. Schreiber et al., Measurement of coffee and caffeine intake: Implications for epidemiolgic research, Preventive Medicine, 17:280- 294, 1988 and Chou, T., Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee and the medical consequences, West. J. Med., 157:544-553, 1992 5. http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/poison/caffeine -overdose/overview.html 6.http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/caffeine/caffeine_healt h.shtml 7.http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/327/16/110 9http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/327/16/110 9
References Continued 8. Fredholm, B,B., Battig, Karl, Holmen, Janet., Nehlig, Astrid, and Zvartau, E. Action of Caffeine in the Brain with Special References to Factors That Contribute to Its Widespread Use. (1999) The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vo. 51. No. 1 9. Fisone, G., Borgkvist, A.., Usiello, A., Caffeine as a Psychomotor Stimulant: Mechanism of Action. 2004. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 857-872