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Thursday Lecture – Plant Beverages with Caffeine Reading: Textbook, Chapter 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Thursday Lecture – Plant Beverages with Caffeine Reading: Textbook, Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thursday Lecture – Plant Beverages with Caffeine Reading: Textbook, Chapter 13

2 Quiz

3 1.The alkaloid from this New World plant passes into the brain more rapidly than heroine or cocaine and is thus highly addictive – what is the name of the alkaloid and what is the name of the plant? 2.The world’s most widely used psychoactive drug is caffeine, which is produced by a variety of different plants – name a plant source of caffeine originally native to the New World and one originally native to the Old World.

4 Caffeine and Theobromine – Mild Stimulants caffeinetheobromine - alkaloids (note N, ring structure) - “methylated xanthines”= methylxanthines

5 Caffeine and Theobromine – Mild Stimulants caffeinetheobromine - alkaloids (note N, ring structure) - “methylated xanthines”= methylxanthines Effects of Caffeine: - central nervous system stimulant

6 Caffeine and Theobromine – Mild Stimulants caffeinetheobromine - alkaloids (note N, ring structure) - “methylated xanthines”= methylxanthines Effects of Caffeine: - central nervous system stimulant - mild diuretic

7 Caffeine and Theobromine – Mild Stimulants caffeinetheobromine - alkaloids (note N, ring structure) - “methylated xanthines”= methylxanthines Effects of Caffeine: - central nervous system stimulant - mild diuretic (makes you go “pee”)

8 Caffeine and Theobromine – Mild Stimulants caffeinetheobromine - alkaloids (note N, ring structure) - “methylated xanthines”= methylxanthines Effects of Caffeine: - central nervous system stimulant - mild diuretic Mode of action: - interferes with enzyme, so that adrenaline remains active  alert feeling

9 Caffeine and Theobromine – Mild Stimulants caffeinetheobromine - alkaloids (note N, ring structure) - “methylated xanthines”= methylxanthines Effects of Caffeine: - central nervous system stimulant - mild diuretic Mode of action: - interferes with enzyme, so that adrenaline remains active  alert feeling - blocks adenosine receptors  inhibits sleep signals

10 Caffeine and Theobromine – Mild Stimulants caffeinetheobromine - alkaloids (note N, ring structure) - “methylated xanthines”= methylxanthines Effects of Caffeine: - central nervous system stimulant - mild diuretic Mode of action: - interferes with enzyme, so that adrenaline remains active  alert feeling - blocks adenosine receptors  inhibits sleep signals Note: latter activity also interacts with dopamine receptors

11 Health Effects of Caffeine Most widely used psychoactive drug - small amounts  no long term effects have been noted

12 Health Effects of Caffeine Most widely used psychoactive drug - small amounts  no long term effects have been noted - even small amounts taken regularly can produce withdrawal if stopped (often manifested as headaches)

13 Health Effects of Caffeine Most widely used psychoactive drug - small amounts  no long term effects have been noted - even small amounts taken regularly can produce withdrawal if stopped (often manifested as headaches) - large amounts  adverse symptoms such as anxiety, insomnia

14 Health Effects of Caffeine Most widely used psychoactive drug - small amounts  no long term effects have been noted - even small amounts taken regularly can produce withdrawal if stopped (often manifested as headaches) - large amounts  adverse symptoms such as anxiety, insomnia - dose-dependent, so that effects on young, unborn NOTE: current recommendations, pregnant women should reduce or eliminate caffeine consumption during pregnancy

15 Health Effects of Caffeine Most widely used psychoactive drug - small amounts  no long term effects have been noted - even small amounts taken regularly can produce withdrawal if stopped (often manifested as headaches) - large amounts  adverse symptoms such as anxiety, insomnia - dose-dependent, so that effects on young, unborn NOTE: current recommendations, pregnant women should reduce or eliminate caffeine consumption during pregnancy - effects on other animals can be different, e.g. dogs, cats, birds

16 Major Plant Sources of Caffeine Coffee – Coffea arabica and related species Chocolate – Theobroma cacao Tea – Camellia sinensis

17 Major Plant Sources of Caffeine Coffee – Coffea arabica and related species Chocolate – Theobroma cacao Tea – Camellia sinensis Other sources of caffeine: - Mate, Ilex paraguariensis - Guaraná, Paullinia capana - Kola, Cola nitida

18 Tea –Beverage of the World Camellia sinensis – Theaceae Shrub, native to China

19 Tea – In the Field Tea Shrubs are grown in large plantations Picking is done by hand – only the shoot tips are taken

20 Tea – Processing

21 Tea Types White tea – leaves are dried only; weak

22 Tea Types White tea – leaves are dried only; weak Green tea – leaves are steamed (destroys fermentation enzymes), dried, and rolled; weak

23 Tea Types White tea – leaves are dried only; weak Green tea – leaves are steamed (destroys fermentation enzymes), dried, and rolled; weak Black tea – leaves are withered, rolled, fermented, dried; strong

24 Tea Types White tea – leaves are dried only; weak Green tea – leaves are steamed (destroys fermentation enzymes), dried, and rolled; weak Black tea – leaves are withered, rolled, fermented, dried; strong Oolong tea – intermediate between black and green – short fermentation

25 Food of the Gods Theobroma cacao – Sterculiaceae Understory tree, native to New World

26 Cacao - the Cauliflorous Tree Main Varieties: Criollo (“native”) – best quality, worst yield, worst disease tolerance

27 Cacao - the Cauliflorous Tree Main Varieties: Criollo (“native”) – best quality, worst yield, worst disease tolerance Forastero (“foreign”) – worst quality, best yield, best disease tolerance

28 Cacao - the Cauliflorous Tree Main Varieties: Criollo (“native”) – best quality, worst yield, worst disease tolerance Forastero (“foreign”) – worst quality, best yield, best disease tolerance Trinitario – hybrid of other two, intermediate in quality, yield, and disease tolerance

29 Cacao - the Cauliflorous Tree

30 Cacao - the Tropical Crop

31 Chocolate Chemistry Caffeine – less than coffee (chocolate bar 30 mg; cup coffee, 100 mg) Theobromine – stimulates heart muscle

32 Chocolate Chemistry Caffeine – less than coffee (chocolate bar 30 mg; cup coffee, 100 mg) Theobromine – stimulates heart muscle Phenylethylamine – reputed to be “mood elevator”, antidepressant - found in brain; low levels linked to depression; chocolate contains low levels of PEA; knowledge of chemistry still incomplete

33 Chocolate Chemistry Caffeine – less than coffee (chocolate bar 30 mg; cup coffee, 100 mg) Theobromine – stimulates heart muscle Phenylethylamine – reputed to be “mood elevator”, antidepressant - found in brain; low levels linked to depression; chocolate contains low levels of PEA; knowledge of chemistry still incomplete Chocolate Myths: - chocolate does not cause acne

34 Chocolate Chemistry Caffeine – less than coffee (chocolate bar 30 mg; cup coffee, 100 mg) Theobromine – stimulates heart muscle Phenylethylamine – reputed to be “mood elevator”, antidepressant - found in brain; low levels linked to depression; chocolate contains low levels of PEA; knowledge of chemistry still incomplete Chocolate Myths: - chocolate does not cause acne - chocolate is not a trigger for migraines

35 Chocolate Chemistry Caffeine – less than coffee (chocolate bar 30 mg; cup coffee, 100 mg) Theobromine – stimulates heart muscle Phenylethylamine – reputed to be “mood elevator”, antidepressant - found in brain; low levels linked to depression; chocolate contains low levels of PEA; knowledge of chemistry still incomplete Chocolate Myths: - chocolate does not cause acne - chocolate is not a trigger for migraines - chocolate is probably not an aphrodisiac

36 Chocolate Chemistry Caffeine – less than coffee (chocolate bar 30 mg; cup coffee, 100 mg) Theobromine – stimulates heart muscle Phenylethylamine – reputed to be “mood elevator”, antidepressant - found in brain; low levels linked to depression; chocolate contains low levels of PEA; knowledge of chemistry still incomplete Chocolate Myths: - chocolate does not cause acne - chocolate is not a trigger for migraines - chocolate is probably not an aphrodisiac NOTE: chocolate “craving” is probably real; reasons, mechanism are unclear

37 Cacao - Processing 1.Seeds are spread out and allowed to ferment 2.Fermented seeds are dried and roasted 3.Seed coats are removed 4.“Nibs” are ground, which produces a thick liquid called chocolate liquor (non-alcoholic) 5.Chocolate liquor is fed through a high pressure press which separates the fat (cocoa butter) from the solids (cocoa powder) 6.The cocoa butter and cocoa powder can be recombined together with sugar or milk to produce chocolate

38 Cacao – Processing 2 Notes: Chocolate liquor is intensely flavored, bitter – diluted with water and flavored it provides a drink – this is how Montezuma and other Aztec royalty would have consumed it, flavored with vanilla and chili pepper

39 Cacao – Processing 2 Notes: Chocolate liquor is intensely flavored, bitter – diluted with water and flavored it provides a drink – this is how Montezuma and other Aztec royalty would have consumed it, flavored with vanilla and chili pepper Cocoa powder contains the chocolate flavor – it can be darkened and the flavor intensified by treating with alkalinization = “Dutching”

40 Cacao – Processing 2 Notes: Chocolate liquor is intensely flavored, bitter – diluted with water and flavored it provides a drink – this is how Montezuma and other Aztec royalty would have consumed it, flavored with vanilla and chili pepper Cocoa powder contains the chocolate flavor – it can be darkened and the flavor intensified by treating with alkalinization = “Dutching” Cocoa butter is the fat – it is tasteless but has the distinctive property of melting at about the human body temperature

41 Cacao – Processing 3 Further Notes: Two other processes are critical to the production of chocolate Conching – the chocolate is placed in a machine and mixed with steel beads, the heat generated by friction alters the texture of the cocoa/sugar particles. The highest quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hrs, low quality chocolates only for about 4-6 hrs Tempering – chocolate is heated to enhance the development of crystals of cocoa butter with the proper characteristics: snap rather than crumble and melt at body temperature

42 Chocolate – the Products Unsweetened: Chocolate liquor + cocoa butter, no sugar -- mole sauce etc.

43 Chocolate – the Products Unsweetened: Chocolate liquor + cocoa butter, no sugar -- mole sauce etc. Semisweet and bittersweet – sugar added

44 Chocolate – the Products Unsweetened: Chocolate liquor + cocoa butter, no sugar -- mole sauce etc. Milk chocoloate – has milk solids + sugar + unsweetened chocolate Semisweet and bittersweet – sugar added

45 Coffee – Out of Africa 1. Discovery in Ethiopia (goats, goatherds, goddesses?)

46 Coffee – Out of Africa s – spread to Europe of coffee drinking

47 Coffee – Out of Africa s – Dutch plantations in East Indies (“Java”)

48 Coffee – Out of Africa 4. French take (smuggle?) coffee to West Indies (Martinique)

49 Coffee – Out of Africa 5. Coffee production starts in Brazil (now #1 producer)

50 Coffee arabica Coffea – member of Rubiaceae - Shrubs - Fruit = berry - Pericarp, seed coats removed  seed used

51 This Bean is a Berry The coffee fruit is a berry, sometimes called a “cherry” The “bean” is the interior of the seed, with the seed wall removed Hand-picking selects the best quality fruits

52 Coffee Processing 1. Seeds dried, fermented (chemical fermentation) 2. Seeds roasted (hot air) 3. Seeds ground, brewed

53 Coffee Issues 1.Pollution - processing of coffee (in beneficios)  large amount of water 2.Disease - fungal diseases wiped out coffee production in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) - fungal diseases still threaten crops in Brazil 3.Shade vs. sun coffee - traditionally, coffee grown under shade  coffee plantations preserve biodiversity 4.Decaffeination – solvent vs. water extraction - solvent extraction  caffeine recovered, sold

54 Thursday Lecture – Alcoholic Beverages Reading: Textbook, Chapter 14


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