華梵工管 scchi 2 Project Definition A Process which starts when the customer or investor first conceives the idea of a project and does not end until the last piece of information has been filed to describe the project in its finished ‘as-built’ condition. Adequate project definition is equally important for the customer, who must be clear on what he or she expects to get for his or her money.
華梵工管 scchi 3 Receipt of Customer Enquiries Enquiries and subsequent orders for commercial projects generally enter contracting companies through their sales engineering or marketing organization. Every enquiry must be registered and allocated a reference name or number that identifies it uniquely. A checklist of information requirements should be provided to ask all the questions from the customers.
華梵工管 scchi 4 Screening Enquiries The work involved in preparing a tender needs significant preliminary engineering design work plus sales and office effort that must be authorized and budgeted. The customers with a poor reputation should be screened out at senior management level. Screening decisions and manage appropriate follow-up action can use a form for every enquiry, such as Figure 3.2.
華梵工管 scchi 5 Feasibility Study With uncertain prognosis, feasibility study is frequently used to examine and appraise the technical, logistical, environmental, commercial and financial aspects of projects requiring a high level of investment. A good feasibility study report can do much to point a project in the right direction and define its risks and achievable objectives.
華梵工管 scchi 6 Step-by-step Approach to Risk Limitation To starting an ill-defined project, this approach is to limit the risk by authorizing work with time limit or budgetary limit step by step. This approach is feasible if the occurrence of significant events in the project that can easily be recognized when they happen. Pure research projects are good candidates for this piecemeal approach.
華梵工管 scchi 7 Defining a Project for Financial Appraisal For short-term commercial projects the financial appraisal may take the form of a simple payback calculation. The data can be tabulated on a spreadsheet, or two graphs can be plotted on a common set of axes (money against time). Project manager might need to help to increase the determination to meet the defined objectives if those objectives (time, money, specifications) were probably key factors in an earlier appraisal decision.
華梵工管 scchi 8 Customer’s Project Specification Initial enquiries from customers can take many forms: a set of plans or drawings, a written description of the project objectives, or a telephone call. All of these elements, taken together and documented, constitute the ‘customer specification’. It must be identifiable by means of a unique reference number, date and the issue or revision number.
華梵工管 scchi 9 Project Scope (1) The contractor’s commitments will not be confined to the technical details but will encompass the fulfillment of all specified commercial conditions. The terms of the order might lay down specific rules governing methods for invoicing and certification of work done for payment. Inspection and quality standards, a well-defined statement of delivery requirements, penalties, staff training, commissioning, and warranty might be included in the contract.
華梵工管 scchi 10 Project Scope (2) The customer’s spec. should set out all the requirements in unambiguous terms. The scope of work required from the contractor, i.e. the size of the contractor’s contribution to the project, must be made clear. The scope of work might be simple as a piece of hardware or be complicated as a turnkey operation for a large construction or process plant project.
華梵工管 scchi 11 Using Checklists Checklists are a useful way of making certain that nothing important is forgotten. A pad of preprinted forms with the options for simple project definition; a host of questions to ask about details for special purpose machining systems. For large construction or mining projects, the checklist is to verify plant performance, building accommodation needs, potential hazards, special statutory regulations, the influence of local trade unions, availability of suitable local labor, facilities, etc. (Figure 3.3)
華梵工管 scchi 12 Defining the Project Design Concept After the contract awarded, a considerable range of different possibilities for the detailed design and make- up of the project. For a technical project, a very large number of permutations between all the possible ways of providing drive, measurement and positional control. Without a detailed design spec., a project could be costed, priced and sold against one set of design solutions but actually executed using a different, more costly, approach. It is dangerous.
華梵工管 scchi 13 ‘Not Invented Here’ Syndrome It sometimes happens that engineers prefer to make a new design even though a perfectly adequate design already exists. Two examples: a British Company vs. a famous European University (the chief engineer resigned), and an American company vs. its new British subsidiary (Anglicizing). It may cause considerable cost and time losses. The golden rule is to define and document the project in all respects before the estimates are made and translated into budgets and price.
華梵工管 scchi 14 Project Specification Development (Solution Engineering) Pre-project phase is also known as solution engineering. Sales engineering group’s recommendation for an engineering solution would be the best suit for the customer (and win the order). Solution engineering is an expensive undertaking, especially when the resulting tender fails to win the contract. Remember that the latest issue of any document might not be the correct issue.
華梵工管 scchi 15 Format and Content (1) 1. Binder: loose-leaf style for addition or substitution 2. Spec. identifier: the spec. serial (identification) number, the project number, the project title. 3. Control schedule of spec. documents: denoting the revision status of the complete document with the main text (in the front or at the back) 4. Descriptive text: describing the project should be clear and concise in the front of a contents list.
華梵工管 scchi 16 Format and Content (2) 5. Supporting documents: a number of supporting engineering must be listed in the control schedule. 6. Distribution list: a list of all those who received the initial issue of the spec.