Presentation on theme: "Rural Credit in India BY- FAHAD AHMAD KHAN. INTRODUCTION The objective of this study is to examine the overview of rural credit in India It includes dependence."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION The objective of this study is to examine the overview of rural credit in India It includes dependence on usurious moneylenders and the operation of a deeply exploitative grid of interlocked, imperfect markets It begins in the 19th and ends in the 21st century but it is primarily concerned with the major episodes of the 20 th century. It contains attempt of the microfinance sector to address this crisis through an examination of its two main approaches.
LATE COLONIAL PERIOD Usurious money lending practices are very well documented in many official reports from the colonial period the Central Banking Enquiry Committee (CBEC) report (1929) and its associated Provincial reports, of which the Madras Provincial Banking Enquiry Committee (MPBEC) report is taken into consideration Frequently the debt is not repaid in full and a part of the loan persists By the existence of this heavy persisting debt, the creditor takes the bulk of the produce and leaves the ryot unable to repay short-term loans. But equally, the short-term loan has produced long-term debt
Repayment of debts was a major compulsion for farmers to sell their crop and the creditor usually insisted on repayment in the immediate post-harvest period. Tenants were the worst affected because for them an extra source of exploitation was added -- the rent-relationship. 1935 Report on Agricultural Indebtedness provides instances of moneylenders who kept accounts but never revealed them to debtors The amount repaid was generally not deducted while calculating future interest dues, nor were the principal and interest separately accounted. If repayment was not made in installments previously agreed to, a higher ‘penal’ interest was charged.
The colonial administration was aware of this problem and made several, if somewhat feeble, attempts to grapple with it. 1-Deccan Agricultural Debtors' Relief Act (1879) that authorised courts to stop charging of usurious interest and sales of land 2-Land Alienation Acts were passed in Punjab, United Provinces and Central Provinces and Berar 3-Low interest loans were provided after the Land Improvement Loans Act of 1883 (for long-term loans) and the Agriculturists Loan Act of 1884 (for current needs). 4-The Usurious Loans Act, passed in 1918 (interest never exceeding principal) to debts. 5-Debtors Protection Acts of 1935(Compulsary licensing and registration of money lenders and proper recording of transactions
1947-1969: Focus on Cooperatives All India Rural Credit Survey (AIRCS) carried out in 1954 confirmed that formal credit institutions provided less than 9% of rural credit needs in India whereas money lendors and traders accounted for more than 75% 1945 Cooperative Planning Committee-India's cooperative movement, finding that a large number of cooperatives were "saddled with the problem of frozen assets, because of heavy over dues in repayment“ These cooperatives were to take the lead in the Integrated Scheme of Rural Credit suggested by the AIRCS. The share of cooperatives in rural credit did rise to cross 20% in 1971.
Today, India's cooperative credit structure (CCS), with over 13 crore members (including 6 crore borrowers) The CCS services farm input distribution, crop production, processing and marketing as also dairying, weaving and textiles State governments have become the dominant shareholders, managers,regulators, supervisors and auditors of the CCS, whereas earlier CCS constantly looked up to the state for several basic functions. But still Domination by richer elements in the rural elite that characterised cooperatives in the colonial period continues to be an abiding feature of these institutions even after independence
1969-1991: Nationalisation of Banks In 1951, the AIRCS found that the share of banks in rural credit was less than 1% In 1954 RBI directed banks to open at least one branch in unbanked rural and semi-rural areas the first intellectual case for nationalisation of commercial banks in India was made in a public lecture delivered by KN Raj in 1965 14 of India's largest scheduled commercial banks were nationalized in 1969. RBI now acquired a more direct and activist role in deciding banking policies. In 1969 the National Credit Council, set up to guide the branch expansion programme, found that not even 1 percent of India's villages were served by commercial banks.
In 1970, the RBI formulated its first "socially coercive" licensing criterion based on this data. For every new branch in an already banked area (with one or more branches), each bank would have to open at least 3 branches in unbanked rural or semi-urban areas. up to 1971, the share of banks in rural credit was no more than 2.4 percent Their main activity was to finance agro-processing firms and purchase of bonds floated by land development banks. It has been alleged that "advances by private banks were diverted to sister companies of the banks or to companies in which their directors had an interest. Thus, cooperatives remained dominated by the rural elite and banks continued to have an urban bias throughout the twenty years after independence.
In 1976 of the Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were created. The number of rural branches of banks (including RRBs) 19 increased from a mere 1443 in 1969 to around 35,000 in the early 1990s. Most of this increase was in unbanked areas. share of rural branches went up from 18 to 58 percent during the same period. Bank branches in unbanked locations really explode after the 1:4 licensing rule of 1977 Another major impetus was formation of National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) through an Act of Parliament in 1982 It was for facilitating credit flow for agriculture, rural industries and all other allied economic activities in rural areas.
RBI had also directed that each rural and semi-urban bank branch had to maintain a credit-deposit ratio of at least 60% DUE TO ALL THESE EFFORTS- between 1969 and 1987, rural credit as a proportion of total credit outstanding went up from 3 to 15 percent. Rural deposits as a share of total deposits went up from around 6 to over 15 percent. The credit-deposit ratio went up from under 40% in 1969 to nearly 70% in 1984 and remained over 60% until the early 1990s.
PRIORITY SECTOR LENDING RBI also sought to influence the sectoral orientation of bank lending. A target of 33% lending to the priority sector was set in 1975 (to be achieved by March 1979). The number of agricultural loan accounts increased from around 1 million in the early 1970s to nearly 30 million by the early 1990s Within agriculture, 42% of the credit went to small and marginal farmers
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - IMPACTS Bank branch expansion accelerated in 1970 A 10% increase in bank branches raised investment in animals and pumpsets by 4-8%. bank branch expansion has a significant positive impact on the growth of non-agricultural output. Demand for fertiliser was also found highly correlated with bank expansion.
What Microfinance cannot do Microfinance by itself is no magic bullet -- not for poverty eradication, livelihood creation, empowerment of women or the poor. MFIs offer high rate of intrest,which demoralizes safer investors Increased competition among MFIs may benefit wealthier borrowers but it lowers welfare levels for the poor It is best for microfinance to build on the SHG-bank linkage model Many allied inputs are required -- forward and backward linkages (input-market support), appropriate skills and technologies as also finance for fixed assets and working capital
COCLUSION The administrative costs of lending are bound to be high in rural areas. Private money lenders use to be in profit whereas banks find the same activity so difficult because- The only collaterals rural borrowers can offer are future labour service, future harvest or the right to use already encumbered land. The public distribution and social security systems are wrecked by inefficiency and corruption. Social obligations too cast a heavy load on the rural populace. There may be some grounds for raising interest rates to promote cost coverage,but every attempt must be make to keep it low.
SOME OTHER SUGGESTIONS massive increase in public investment in natural resource regeneration(especially in rain fed India), ecologically sustainable, low-cost, low-risk agriculture and all forms of rural infrastructure; market support for crops grown in rainfed areas, such as cotton, pulses and oilseeds reforms of public sector banking (including RRBs) aimed at strengthening their capacity to deliver high quality credit. This includes ease of procedures and personnel and the infusion of professional staff. Greater emphasis on effectiveness rather than efficiency