Presentation on theme: "The Anatomy of the Grid Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, Steven Tuecke Professor: Dr. M. Sadjadi Presenter: Sri Medam Antagonist: Tariq King."— Presentation transcript:
The Anatomy of the Grid Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, Steven Tuecke Professor: Dr. M. Sadjadi Presenter: Sri Medam Antagonist: Tariq King
Outline Purpose Introduction Concept of Virtual Organizations Need for Grid Technology Grid Architecture Relationships with other Technologies Conclusion
Purpose “ To argue that the Grid concept is indeed motivated by a real and specific problem (Grid problem) and that there is an emerging, well-defined technology base that addresses significant aspects of this problem”
Virtual Organizations Virtual Organizations Group of individuals or institutions defined by sharing rules to share the resources of “Grid” for a common goal. Eg: Application service providers, storage service providers, databases, crisis management team, consultants.
Need for Grid technology Common concerns and requirements for Flexible sharing relationships Sophisticated and precise control over how shared resources are used and conditions under which sharing occurs. Sharing of varied resources Diverse usage modes. Grid technology provides a general resource-sharing framework that addresses these VO requirements
Nature of Grid Architecture Protocol Architecture Why interoperability main concern? To ensure that sharing relationships can be established among varied participants across different platforms. Why protocols critical to interoperability? “ Local control is preserved ” “ Local control is preserved ”
Grid Architecture Description Idea: Standardize the interfaces between interacting components of the grid. Grid Architecture Maps to IP Architecture Grid Architecture Maps to IP Architecture Basis: Map Grid architecture to any standard protocol architecture (here Internet protocol architecture)
Fabric Layer Fabric : Interfaces to local control Provides resources. Fabric components implement resource specific operations Resources should implement Enquiry, resource management mechanisms…
Fabric layer Resources should implement Enquiry, resource management mechanisms. Computational resources: for starting programs and, for monitoring and controlling the execution of the process. Storage resources: Reading and writing files. Network resources: require mechanisms for controlling resources allocated to network transfer, enquire functions to determine network characteristics and load. Code repositories: for managing versioned code.( CVS) Catalogs: require mechanisms for implementing query and update operations ( relational database)
Connectivity Layer Connectivity: Communicating Easily and Securely. Defines core communication and authentication protocols. Communication requirements: transport, routing, naming Authentication solutions : Single sign on, delegation, integration with various local security solutions, user-based trust relationships.
Resource Layer Resource: Sharing Single Resources Defines protocols for secure negotiation, initiation, monitoring, control, accounting, payment of sharing operations on individual resources. Two primary classes of Resource layer protocols are Information protocols, Management protocols. Information protocols, Management protocols. Management protocol – “ policy application point”.
Collective Layer Collective: Coordinating Multiple Resources Defines protocols that capture interactions across collections of resources. Directory services – GRRP, GRIP Co-allocation, scheduling, brokering services – Condor-G, Nimrod-G, DRM broker. Monitoring and diagnostic Data Replication Grid enabled programming Workload management and collaboration frameworks Software discovery - NetSolve, Ninf Community authorization Community accounting and payment Collaboratory services – Access Grid.
Application Layer Programmer’s View of Grid Architecture Grid Architecture Application: implement business logic over fabric, connectivity, resources and collective layers
Example of Grid - Globus Define protocol architecture (layers) Fabric: GT primarily uses existing fabric components. Otherwise, it includes the missing functionality Connectivity: GT uses TCP/IP for communication, and PKI & TLS based Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) for authentication Resource: GT uses Grid Resource Information Protocol (GRIP) which is based on LDAP, Grid Resource Registration Protocol (GRRP) to register resource information at servers called Grid Index Information Servers (GIIS), Grid Resource Access & Management (GRAM) protocol to allocate and monitor computational resources, FTP based GridFTP protocol for data access, and, LDAP for catalog access Collective: GT uses GIISs to support resource views, LDAP to access GRIS Application: GT allows development of many sophisticated frameworks and libraries to implement application layer logic for end use.
Relationships with other Technologies Other technologies: DCE (Open Group) - inflexible Internet (IETF, W3C) – it is Client-Server ASP and SSP (singleton resource type) Enterprise CS (CORBA, DCOM, EJB) – Sharing arrangements are static and restricted to single organization. P2P – weak security, strong anonymity
Conclusion Current technologies either does not accommodate the range of resource types or does not provide the flexibility and control on sharing relationships needed to establish VOs. Current technologies integrated with Grid technologies can enhance capabilities to great extent. Grid technologies support the sharing and coordinated use of resources in dynamic and scalable VOs.
References The Anatomy of the Grid, Ian Foster et al., Supercomputing Journal, 2001 Evolution of Grid Computing Architecture, J. Joseph, IBM Systems Journal, 2004
Agnostic Questions For the connectivity layer, which the authors describe "communicating easily and securely", most of the attention is given to authentication solutions. Traditional Grid infrastructure, such as the GSI from Globus, has also concentrated on authentication and not provided a sufficient infrastructure for the rest of the trust hierarchy (i.e. authorisation, policy implementation, etc). Question 1: To date, what measures have been made towards providing a more complete security infrastructure on the Grid?
Agnostic Questions Answer: As far as the trust hierarchy concerned verification, validation of Sender and receiver and protection of communication channel are important. Verification and Validation of sender, receiver will be taken care by CA verification. Channel is protected by many ways - TCP/IP for communication, and PKI & TLS based Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) for authentication All of which are very strong and standard protocols for encrypting the channel.
Agnostic Questions Question 2: Are any of these solutions also “easy” to install and configure? Answer: Grid Accounts Management Architecture (GAMA) With GAMA, end users never have to know anything about grid security, credentials, proxies, or other technical matters. They simply request an account using a typical Web form interface, and after the account is created, they log in to the portal using a familiar username/password combination. All the grid activity happens in the background -- from creation of grid credentials to retrieval of these credentials for use by portlets.
With respect to storage resources, the authors mention that "third party and high performance transfers are useful". Grid applications today generate very large datasets, and I/O is already the slowest computational component by several orders of magnitude when compared to memory or processor speed. Question 3: As number and size of Virtual Organizations grow, will not data access and retrieval become a major bottleneck, and hence remove the attractiveness of the grid for meeting the needs of some members? What approaches are being used to address problem now rather than waiting for network speeds to improve?
Agnostic Questions Answer: Keeping redundant copies in various portions of grid for faster parallel access using distributed system concepts. Data replication services: Support the management of VO storage resources to maximize the data access performance with respect to time, reliability and cost.
Question 4:What work is being done to address some of the more difficult I/O topics for Grid computing such as noncontiguous I/O, caching, and fault tolerance? Answer:In my opinion Noncontiguous I/O, caching, fault tolerance are implementation details of the resources. Grid architecture is about the interaction of resources rather than their implementation.
Quesiton 5: This paper discusses solutions to many of the technical challenges of the Grid. Do you think that management of collaboration efforts is just as important as solving the technical challenges? If so, why? Could including such information in the paper have improved the discussion of any particular section? Answer:This paper mainly about the anatomy means structural description of the grid. Collaboration to improve coordination and resolve conflicts among process is highly important. Management of collaboration will be further research into this field which will be more interesting and challenging. For this paper the idea is to present the anatomy how it looks, structure wise and concepts.
Question6:By the definition of Grid computing, the authors stress the need for interoperability across organizations. In your opinion, is the ultimate vision of Grid computing obscured by the lack of interoperability standards among Grid technologies? Answer: Interoperability is necessary to ensure that sharing relationships can be initiated among dynamic participants across different platforms, languages, and programming environments for resource sharing. without interoperability it becomes a basic client/server technology. Applications and services on Grid will work together based on their requirements and set guidelines by the system architects.
Question7:In previous presentations Global Grid Forum (GGF) and OASIS have been mentioned as leaders in moving towards a primary set of Grid standards. What other organizational bodies are currently pushing towards guaranteeing interoperability among Grids? Is this effort sufficient considering the grand challenges facing the Grid? Answer:Other leaders contributing to grid standards are W3C, Distributed Management Task Force, Web Services Interoperability Organization, Internet2, Liberty Alliance
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