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Doug Paterson May 2008 Philosophy For Children SAPERE LEVEL ONE St Benet Biscop High School.

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Presentation on theme: "Doug Paterson May 2008 Philosophy For Children SAPERE LEVEL ONE St Benet Biscop High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Doug Paterson May 2008 Philosophy For Children SAPERE LEVEL ONE St Benet Biscop High School

2 Is something boring because of it Or because of you?

3 Introductions & Aims Day One Introduction to and the format of ‘Community of Enquiry’ Day One Aims  To be introduced to a Community of Enquiry  To investigate the habits we wish for our students  To understand the component parts of an Enquiry

4 Enquiry One - Oral Story Hank & Frank

5 Philosophy 4 Children Aim – To help students become more REASONABLE Motto – Not all your questions answered but all your answers questioned Method – Challenge what they believe to be true through DIALOGUE – The Community of Enquiry

6 The HABITS of being REASONABLE Reasonable Behaviour Reasonable Thinking ListeningEvaluating

7 Label the habits/attributes and add the Physical Characteristics of a ‘Wise Person’ A 'Wise Person’

8 What does being WISE look like? What does being WISE Sound like? What does being WISE feel like?


10 Enquiry Two - Using Pictures

11 Reflection In pairs think back over the session and the P4C work you have done Formulate one question that you still want to be addressed in our final session and write it on the flip chart

12 Introductions & Aims Day Two – Facilitation and Principles Day Two Aims  To investigate further the skills of facilitation  To understand the principles under lying P4C  To look forward to our own practise

13 Facilitation Tips  It is OK to struggle  Deconstruct the question – look for the concepts  Keep on course  Use the questioning techniques

14 Which is more important? Being Right or Being Polite In pairs take it in turns to use the question stems to facilitate a Dialogue from the following -

15 Origins – Matthew Lipman Monclair State College, New Jersey Encourage young people to be more reasonable – ready to reason and be reasoned with. The goal of education – ‘practical wisdom’ or good judgement Emphasis on Questioning & Enquiry We learn to think as we learn to speak, by internalising the patterns of speech and thought we hear around us

16 Origins – John Dewey 1859-1952 ‘An education that emphasises community, communication, intelligent enquiry, and a reconstructive attitude can best serve the citizens of an ever-changing world’ The majority of our students will work in jobs not yet invented

17 Origins – Lev Vygotsky 1896 1934 ‘What children can do in co-operation today, he can do alone tomorrow’ Children construct their knowledge Development can not be separated from its social context Language plays an important part in mental development

18 Facilitating Dialogue as opposed to Debate Question Stems Can you give me an example of that? Has that ever happened to you? Is that always true? Why do you believe that? What do you mean by …..? Can you say that in a different way? Is it ever Ok/Right to …? What is the difference between (a) and (b)? Is there a difference between (a) and (b)? What is doing the thinking/feeling? How is that connected to ….? Whose thoughts are you making links with? What evidence have you got to back that up? Does anyone agree or disagree with? Why? Does anyone have a different idea? How could we find that out? Can you summarize what you have just said? What other reasons would make us believe that? Could it be ever possible that ….? Is that exactly what you mean? Would there be any circumstances that would make you give a different view? What might change your mind?

19 If you had a different name would you be a different person? Are friends more important than family? Do we have to be sad sometimes in order to be happy at other times? Is it ever OK to steal? Would you still be you if everyone in the world thought you were someone else? Would you rather be able to think more, write more, or speak more? Is it possible to hold a fair race? What is the difference between telling a lie and keeping a secret? What’s the difference between dreaming, daydreaming and thinking? When did you start to think? Is it alright to lie? Do we all have the same rights? Deconstruct these questions, What are the KEY CONCEPTS to explore?

20 ‘Do things have to get worse before they get better?’ Wisefools ‘Do things have to get worse before they get better?’ JRBS ‘Is it better to think things twice before you act?’ Rachel, Becca, Amber, Ashleigh, Natalie ‘Do you always think twice?’ The Cheeky boys & Kevin ‘Does it always get better b4 it gets worse?’ The Foo-Kings ‘Why do more fortunate people often take things for granted?’ Question deconstruction – Philosophy starts with the discussion of words

21 The Three Robbers

22 Which would you rather be Brave or Clever?

23 It was always Christmas You knew everything It rained every day Toys came alive Everyone was a boy It was never cold There was no such thing as love We could see what people are thinking People could fly There was no money Nobody could talk There was no time There were no schools Nobody ever got told off Dreams came true Chickens laid golden eggs You had a birthday every day It never rained We could all do magic We had no fingers There were no numbers People were as small as ants Nothing was round There were no grown ups Children swapped places with teachers There was no sun Money grew on tress There was no electricity Suggested Ten Minute Starters Let’s Pretend /Would it be good if …….

24 Enquiry Components Suggestions Preparation (Warm Up) Presentation of Stimulus Thinking Time (Reflection on Stimulus) Conversation Formulation of questions Airing of the Questions Selection of Question (Vote) First Words Building (Facilitation) Last Words Plan Your Own P4C Session ClassDateStimulus

25 Doug Paterson Jan 2009 Philosophy For Children SAPERE LEVEL ONE St Benet Biscop High School

26 Introductions & Aims Day Three – Troubleshooting & Next Steps Day Two Aims  To have an open forum to discuss issues arising  To have a community of enquiry  To look to our next steps

27 Can you come up with TEN questions to which the answer is ZOO?


29 The Focusing Exercise Simple but powerful exercise to help students focus their attention. It can also be used as a calming exercise at the start of a session. As with all exercise repetition leads to good habits. The Exercise – Students sit up right with a straight back and feet on the floor ‘First give your attention to the sense of touch. Feel the weight of your feet on the floor….Your body on the chair…. Your clothes on your skin… Now using sight, and without naming things in your kind, see colures…. Shapes… The spaces between shapes… Now using your sense of hearing, hear any sounds close at hand….now let that hearing gradually run out until the furthest sounds can be heard Now try and hold this awareness for a few moments

30 Objectives  To continue to become more ‘philosophical’  To continue to practise the habit of waiting our turn  To continue to practise the habit of giving reasons in support Philosophy Walk Away?

31 Formative & Summative Self-Assessment for Communities of Enquiry Formative Self- Assessment Summative Self- Assessment Were we sitting a circle today?Are we better at sitting a circle now than we were before? Were we listening to each other today? Are we listening to each other more now than we were before? Did a lot of people get to talk today or only a few people? Are more of us taking now than we were before? Were we taking turns today?Are we better at taking turns now than we were before? Did we think a lot today?Are we thinking more/better now than we were before? Was our thinking interesting?Is our thinking more interesting now than before? Do we think about more interesting things? Did we give (good) reasons today? Are we giving more/better reasons now than before? How did we treat each other?Are we treating each other more kindly?

32 Next Steps & Accreditation SAPERE Accreditation  Complete Level 1 certificate application and return to SAPERE  Membership – Highly recommended £15 for the first year  Level 2 Eligibility  Trainer Evaluation form return to SAPERE Resources Level One Handbook Thinking Together – Philip Cam But Why? – Sara Stanley Little book of thunks – Ian Gilbet

33 Next Steps Resources on the Net National Charity for the advancement of Philosophical Enquiry in Education, providing further training and support, (who I am accredited by!) (An on-line resource and collaboration service for P4C0) (My e-mail address) Discussion plans and resources Excellent for buying resources for both P4C and Thinking Skills Stimuli Start Thinking Marcelo Staricoff & Alan Rees (where my starters come from) These are for more general P4C theory and practice. ‘School is Hell’ A Cartoon Book – Matt Groening ‘I wish I didn't have to sleep’ – Keith Haring, Award winning graffiti Artist Thinking Stories – Philosophical Inquiry for Children by Philip Cam ‘The Gruffalo’ Julia Donaldson 101 Ethical Dilemmas Martin Cohen Further Reading These are for more general P4C theory and practice. Thinking Together ‘Philosophical Inquiry in the Classroom’ - Philip Cam The Philosophy Files - Stephen Law Radical Encouragement, Creating Cultures for Learning – Rupert Wegeriff & Steve Williams

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