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© Boardworks Ltd 2008 1 of 27 Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page.Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. Accompanying worksheet.Printable activity. Useful web links. Geographical Enquiry An Introduction to Geography
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 2 of 25 Contents What is geographical enquiry? General techniques Presenting data and analysing results Summary activities The key concepts covered are: Place, Space and Physical and human processes.
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 3 of 25 What is geographical enquiry? Discuss how geographers conduct enquiries and collect data. Discuss the implications of fieldwork for health and safety and its impact on the chosen site. By the end of this section, you will: What is geographical enquiry?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 4 of 25 Why do we enquire? We conduct enquiries to find out what is happening in our world, to make sense of what has happened in the past and to make judgements about what might happen in the future. When conducting enquiries, geographers formulate a hypothesis, research the topic, obtain data and then analyse data to prove or disprove a hypothesis. What enquiries are geographers conducting today?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 5 of 25 Current geographical enquiries Geographers are investigating many topics. These include: the impact of climate change population studies the impact of industry. What topics do you think are most relevant today?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 6 of 25 Creating a hypothesis Research is the way geographers gather information to prove or disprove a hypothesis or a set of hypotheses. A hypothesis is an idea which can be investigated and found to be true or false. Example hypotheses: A river gets wider as you move downstream. The school building produces its own microclimate. Land use in the town centre is mostly commercial. What data could you collect to prove or disprove each hypothesis?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 7 of 25 Your enquiry title…. How could we improve the environmental quality of the school site?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 8 of 25 Types of research Secondary research involves collecting and collating data from existing sources. Secondary research might include: web research library research drawing conclusions from someone else's work. Primary research is where data is gathered on the front line. This might include observations, interviews and experiments. Geographers call this type of research fieldwork.
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 9 of 25 What is fieldwork? Geographers do fieldwork in order to gather data for study. Fieldwork takes place in a specific location where observations are made and measurements taken. Fieldwork allows us to find out about the human and physical world around us. This world is always changing and fieldwork provides us with information about the changes. Why is fieldwork important to geographers?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 10 of 25 Suggestions for fieldwork
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 11 of 25 Location, location, location Planning where to do fieldwork is a central part of investigating a particular hypothesis. A site must be safe, accessible, and a likely source of relevant data. In addition to being safe and collecting suitable data, good fieldwork aims to have minimal environmental impact on a site. How might you make an impact on an environment whilst doing fieldwork?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 12 of 25 Map of school site: which 10 locations will you choose?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 13 of 25 Fieldwork equipment
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 14 of 25 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Average Fieldwork notebook A fieldwork notebook is useful to record any measurements. Location: Width Depth Speed Weather: A table with headings can help organize the data collected.
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 15 of 25 Reading and observing Make field sketches of interesting features at the site. Label the sketches to draw attention to specific details. Remember to make a note of details that may influence your data. These might include weather conditions, the time of day or whether it’s a public holiday. Record your readings, measurements and tallies in neat tables.
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 16 of 25 Environmental quality survey
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 17 of 25 Writing a questionnaire yes or no answers Closed (categories)- possibly a few open questions not too many questions easy to read lay out Able to collect all answers on one sheet Need information on: People’s opinions of the school Areas that are attractive and less attractive Ideas about what could be done to improve the area
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 18 of 25 Clear set out Boxes to tick or cross Headings in bold to make it clear Large title
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 19 of 25 To much writing to fill in. Will take too long and people won’t want to fill it in. Not obvious what questions are asking To much information to read in the introduction
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 20 of 25 Drawing a field sketch
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 21 of 25 Annotating a field sketch
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 22 of 25 General techniques Think about ways to set up a field notebook and what notes should be made in it. Observe how field sketches are produced and practice drawing and annotating them. By the end of this section, you will: General techniques
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 23 of 25 Presenting data and analysing results Be able to present your data in an acceptable format. Interpret data in order to accept or reject different hypotheses. By the end of this section, you will: Presenting data and analysing results
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 24 of 25 Structure of your report Writing up the results: Introduction: Explain what you are trying to find out in your study Method: Explain how you collected your information and why you did it in this way Presentation of data: Include a range of presentation methods e.g. graphs and tables, annotated maps, annotated field sketches and photos Description and explanation of results: Using the data you have collected explain which areas of the school you and the people you surveyed think are the best and which areas you and the people surveyed think are the worst and EXPLAIN why you got these results. For areas of the school that you think need to be improved explain (and possibly include annotated plans for improvement) of what could be done to improve the areas.
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 25 of 25 Presenting data After collecting data, you need to be able to present it in a format where in can be easily understood, and interpreted to prove or disprove your hypothesis. Good forms of presenting data include: tables charts and graphs thematic maps (like choropleth maps). All of the above could be incorporated into a written formal report.
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 26 of 25 Interpreting your data
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 27 of 25 Returning to the hypothesis If the analysis of fieldwork data shows the hypothesis to be true, geographers say they accept the hypothesis. If the analysis of fieldwork data shows the hypothesis to be untrue, geographers say they reject the hypothesis. The data collected during fieldwork and presented as results is used to test the hypothesis. It is analysed for patterns and trends that shed light on the subject of the hypothesis. What do you do with the hypothesis?
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 28 of 25 Bringing your findings together….
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 29 of 25 Summary activities Consolidate knowledge of geographical enquiry. Revise definitions of key terms. By the end of this section, you will: Summary activities
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 30 of 25 Summary quiz
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 31 of 25 Glossary
© Boardworks Ltd 2008 32 of 25 Anagrams
© Boardworks Ltd of 7 Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page.Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Icons key: For more detailed.
© Boardworks Ltd of 15 Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page.Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Icons key: For more detailed.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 31 Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page.Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Icons key: For more detailed.
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