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1 An introduction to Enquiry Based Learning Ivan Moore Director Mike Bramhall Associate Director Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning: Promoting.

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Presentation on theme: "1 An introduction to Enquiry Based Learning Ivan Moore Director Mike Bramhall Associate Director Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning: Promoting."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 An introduction to Enquiry Based Learning Ivan Moore Director Mike Bramhall Associate Director Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning: Promoting Learner Autonomy Faculty Head of Learning, Teaching and Assessment Sheffield Hallam University

2 2 The cure for boredom is curiosity. There is no cure for curiosity.... Dorothy Parker

3 3 We are from here WE are not from here!. Sheffield Where are we from?

4 4 Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Government funded, five year initiative competitive bidding process £4.5M maximum award 74 funded centres –Single and collaborative –Subject-specific –Themed

5 5 Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Sheffield Hallam University Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Promoting Learner Autonomy

6 6 A definition of learner autonomy An autonomous learner takes responsibility for his/her own learning They can identify: –their learning goals (what they need to learn) –their learning processes (how they will learn it) –how they will evaluate and use their learning

7 7 Characteristics of ‘effective’ autonomous learners they have well-founded conceptions of learning they have a range of learning approaches and skills they can organize their learning they have good information processing skills they are well motivated to learn

8 8 WILLINGNESS TO LEARN Balance of vocational, academic, personal and social motivations to learn Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Goals Short - Medium - Long Confidence MANAGEMENT Study Skills Planning and problem solving Evaluation & Metacognition Self-assessment Focus & ‘stickability’ Time and project management Balancing social, work and learning needs Assessment INFORMATION Information handling Access to resources: On line and Paper-based Role models (people, exemplars, designs) Equipment Other learners Contexts STANCE TOWARDS LEARNING Orientation to learning Appropriate conceptions of learning Deep approach to learning A range of appropriate learning strategies

9 9 WILLINGNESS TO LEARN Balance of vocational, academic, personal and social motivations to learn Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Goals Short - Medium - Long Confidence MANAGEMENT Study Skills Planning and problem solving Evaluation & Metacognition Self-assessment Focus & ‘stickability’ Time and project management Balancing social, work and learning needs Assessment INFORMATION Information handling Access to resources: On line and Paper-based Role models (people, exemplars, designs) Equipment Other learners Contexts STANCE TOWARDS LEARNING Orientation to learning Appropriate conceptions of learning Deep approach to learning A range of appropriate learning strategies

10 10 Factors that can influence the development of autonomy The potential for autonomy in learning (Fazey and Fazey, 2001) –Autonomous people are intrinsically-motivated, perceive themselves to be in control of their decision making, take responsibility for the outcomes of their actions and have confidence in themselves

11 11 Three factors motivationperceived controlperceived competence Intrinsic interest in the subject, topic or activity (task) Extrinsic 1 identified - inherently valued, but not self- initiated 2 introjected - values the activity because of the goal it achieves (success or failure) 3 external - job, qualification outcome, success (learning) is dependent on themselves. They have control over the task, learning, outcomes outcome is dependent on others (in power) the task or learning is controlled by others …or confidence 'sufficiently high self- perception of competence to be prepared to risk short- term failure at a task which they feel is important.'

12 12 Motivation interest in the subject/task clear goals, tasks and standards support feedback sense of belonging and sharing success - improvement

13 13

14 14 Learning as a journey We become more autonomous as learners as we make more of our own choices about what we learn and how we learn it. dependence Independence or autonomy interdependence

15 15 The learning journey Relative dependence Independence or autonomy Collaboration is not inter-dependence. Autonomy does not mean working on your own. Collaborative learning still requires you to work on your own some of the time. Inter-dependence

16 16 The learning journey Relative dependence Independence or autonomy Enquiry Based Learning Inter-dependence

17 17 Knowledge (breadth and complexity) Independence Intellectual capacity Level one Level two Level three Learning as growth

18 18 How do people learn? 'Tell me and I will forget, show me and I may not remember, involve me and I will understand' Kung Fu Tse (Confucius) 2500 years ago

19 19 What is EBL? What does the term EBL mean to you? –What words come to mind? –Definition, rationale, practices, outcomes, issues, challenges, opportunities Write your thoughts down on a post-it –(one thought per sheet) Now stick your sheet on the wall and call out what you have written

20 20 A starting point EBL represents a shift away from passive methods, which involve the transmission of knowledge to students, to more facilitative teaching methods through which students are expected to construct their own knowledge and understanding by engaging in supported processes of enquiry

21 21 What is Enquiry Based Learning? Enquiry Based Learning is a natural form of learning, borne out of our innate sense of curiosity and desire to understand It is generically applicable, and has grown from modelling learning in a number of subjects

22 22 Recognisable forms of EBL Design Problem Based Learning Case Based Learning Field Study Dissertations, projects Research

23 23 Active, student-centred, authentic, supported Learning driven by a process of enquiry or investigation Involves complex, intriguing, authentic, stimuli –Intentional –unintentional Student-centred Requires action Connects theory and practice Supported process Develops skills Social Enjoyable

24 24 Some ‘drivers’…. Supports transition into and through Higher Education –Practice in a safe environment –Opportunities for reflection and review –Accommodates different learning styles –Socialises the learning and the learner Develops lifelong learning skills – information explosion Inter-professional and interdisciplinary learning Promotes the links between teaching, learning and research Autonomy, employability, and professional body requirements

25 25 Academic skills Research Students determine and pursue THEIR OWN lines of enquiry –Large scale enquiries-macro –Small scale enquiries-micro Information They build on what they already know They identify what information they need They find, evaluate and use the information They may communicate their learning to others

26 26 Professional skills Team working and leadership Inter-personal skills –Negotiation –Decision making –Handling conflict –Sharing Communication skills –Presentation, explaining, questioning Managing projects and meetings Practical application of theory

27 27 Professional skills Team working and leadership Inter-personal skills –Negotiation –Decision making –Handling conflict –Sharing Communication skills –Presentation, explaining, questioning Managing projects and meetings Practical application of theory

28 28 Personal skills Taking and accepting responsibility –Ethics, empathy and tolerance Encourages exploration, curiosity Creative problem-solving Balancing creativity with resilience Planning Time-management and organisation

29 29 Motivation Authentic Realistic challenge Locus of control Feedback and support Shared learning –success Socialises the learning

30 30 Where to begin Select a topic or theme Determine timescale for investigation –Allow for induction, presentation and assessment –Pilot over 3 or 4 weeks in a module –Evaluate it

31 31 Preparing the students for EBL…. Clarify expectations –theirs and yours Be aware of the ‘peaks and troughs’ in the calendar Provide practice sessions –Practice in a low-risk situation –experienced students as models –Allow time for the groups to ‘gel’ – socialise –Begin to understand group dynamics and rules/roles/skills –Create the environment –encourage students to give and receive feedback

32 32 The scale of the investigation In-class Between classes (1 week) 2-3 weeks 6-12 weeks or longer Resources provided, small scale investigations, may or may not be linked Initial discussion, students find information from different sources. Need to share outside class. Report back week 2 Middle week(s) for ‘catch up’, consolidate, review and plan Large scale investigation, significantly more autonomy, opportunity for in-depth investigation (deep learning)

33 33 Creating ‘problems’ What do we want students to do? –Gain understanding, retain knowledge –Make decisions based on their research –Analyse, synthesise and evaluate rather than simply define and explain –Adopt a positive attitude towards their subject/profession –Take more responsibility for their learning –Develop transferable skills

34 34 The enquiry…. Compatibility with learning objectives of the course Must engage students and motivate them Relationship to the ‘real world’ Encourage students to make decisions or judgements based on information and facts Move students beyond recall of information Should encourage collaboration and co-operation Open-ended, connected to existing knowledge

35 35 Possible routes to generating an enquiry…. Design exercises Critical incidents Real case-histories or patient care-plans Present and past controversies Application of important concepts to everyday situations or personal situations Video-clips, novels, newspaper articles, research papers, cartoons Re-write a typical exam question as an open-ended, ‘real-world’ problems Work with colleagues to decide the approach Test the problems on students

36 36 Role of the students Accept responsibility for their learning Establish group roles, if any Analyze the stimulus Identify learning goals Determine a plan of activity and agree individual tasks/responsibilities Report individual findings and collate research Complete the task (e.g. present findings) Undertake assessment tasks Give and receive feedback

37 37 Refine the problem What do we know? Information gap Develop a plan Share tasks Discuss and consolidate Undertake the investigations Share the learning

38 38 Refine the problem What do we know? Information gap Develop a plan Share tasks Discuss and consolidate Undertake the investigations Share the learning

39 39

40 40 Enquiry Based Learning as a continuous cyclical process

41 41 Role of the tutor/facilitator Prepare the students – benefits and expectations, change of role, working in teams Establish the teams Devise the stimulus –Carefully crafted scenarios, triggers, problems Prepare the resources, determine the assessment methods and any deadlines

42 42 Facilitation…. Acceptance of the ‘shift’ from content expert to facilitator Establishing the environment Taking an active role - keeping the balance Allowing freedom to explore and exchange ideas Ask open-ended questions Encourage reflection and review Offer progress checks – move things forward Challenge the students Guidance on appropriate resources Sensitivity to group dynamics

43 43 Characteristics of an effective facilitator…. Willing to spend time building relationships Negotiates rather than dictates - shares Draws energy from outside themselves as well as within Enthusiasm More like a coach than a scientist Naturally curious about people, things, life in general Flexible Listens Confident Honest Attentive Humorous Checks understanding – closure and consolidation

44 44 Tutor roleFacilitation typology (style) Facilitation approach continuum Establisher (trigger) Observer Monitor Fixer Member Assessor Social Technical Organisational Motivational hands offhands on reactiveproactive information up frontheld back

45 45 Questioning (why do you think that is important?) Guiding (Have you thought of….?) Challenging (How does that work….?) Devil’s advocate (so what if I said….?) Mirroring (well, what do you think it means?) Laddering (ok, so what do you know about…?) Stimulate discussion (what might the pitfalls be? Have you thought about cost/ethics/time…?) Support the process (I thought you agreed that….? Could you re- cap for me?) It is Ok to remain silent at times !

46 46 Preparing students for EBL Forming the student teams –Belbin –Myers-Briggs

47 47 An introduction to Enquiry Based Learning Ivan Moore Director Mike Bramhall Associate Director Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning: Promoting Learner Autonomy Faculty Head of Learning, Teaching and Assessment Sheffield Hallam University

48 48 To enable examiners to certify that the students have met a certain standard of performance To certify levels of achievement To inform the students by giving them accurate information on their strengths and weaknesses, with the aim of improving the quality of their knowledge, understanding and skills To motivate the students by providing them with an opportunity to review and consolidate what they have learnt Purposes of assessment

49 49 Effective assessment in EBL Clear criteria aligned with the desired learning outcomes Assessment FOR learning – continuous Formative and summative Range of methods (including examination!) Include evidence from the EBL process Self and peer


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