Presentation on theme: "1 Enquiry Based Learning Welcome While you are waiting for the rest of the group to arrive, talk to your neighbour(s) about your summer holiday."— Presentation transcript:
1 Enquiry Based Learning Welcome While you are waiting for the rest of the group to arrive, talk to your neighbour(s) about your summer holiday
2 Enquiry Based Learning Ivan Moore Director, Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning: Promoting Learner Autonomy Sheffield Hallam University
3 Through participating in this workshop, you should: be able to describe and explain the principles, and practices of facilitating group-work in Enquiry Based Learning; have participated in several EBL-type activities through which you will have experienced approaches to group-work; Have some fun
4 Some ground rules Please enjoy yourself Feel free to ask questions, offer suggestions or make any positive contribution you like but 'no time wasters' Engage in the tasks quickly, stay on task and keep to time Address difficulties as soon as they arise
5 Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Government funded, five year initiative competitive bidding process £4.5M maximum award 74 funded centres –Single and collaborative –Subject-specific –Themed The University of Manchester - Enquiry Based Learning (CEEBL) 2005
6 Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Sheffield Hallam University Director, Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Promoting Learner Autonomy
7 What is EBL? What does the term EBL mean to you? –What words come to mind? –Definition, rationale, practices, outcomes, issues, challenges, opportunities Write your thoughts down on a post-it –(one thought per sheet) Now stick your sheet on the wall and call out what you have written
8 A starting point EBL represents a shift away from passive methods, which involve the transmission of knowledge to students, to more facilitative teaching methods through which students are expected to construct their own knowledge and understanding by engaging in supported processes of enquiry Social constructivism
9 What is Enquiry Based Learning? Enquiry Based Learning is a natural form of learning, borne out of our innate sense of curiosity and desire to understand It is generically applicable, and has grown from modelling learning in a number of subjects
10 Recognisable forms of EBL Design Problem Based Learning Case Based Learning Field Study Dissertations, projects Research
11 Active, student-centred, authentic, supported Learning driven by a process of enquiry or investigation Involves complex, intriguing, authentic, stimuli –Intentional –unintentional Student-centred Requires action Connects theory and practice Supported process Develops skills Social Enjoyable
12 Academic skills Research Students determine and pursue THEIR OWN lines of enquiry –Large scale enquiries-macro –Small scale enquiries-micro Information They build on what they already know They identify what information they need They find, evaluate and use the information They may communicate their learning to others
13 Intellectual skills later
14 Professional skills Team working and leadership Inter-personal skills –Negotiation –Decision making –Handling conflict –Sharing Communication skills –Presentation, explaining, questioning Managing projects and meetings Practical application of theory
15 Professional skills Team working and leadership Inter-personal skills –Negotiation –Decision making –Handling conflict –Sharing Communication skills –Presentation, explaining, questioning Managing projects and meetings Practical application of theory
16 Personal skills Taking and accepting responsibility –Ethics, empathy and tolerance Encourages exploration, curiosity Creative problem-solving Balancing creativity with resilience Planning Time-management and organisation
17 Motivation Authentic Realistic challenge Locus of control Feedback and support Shared learning –success Socialises the learning
18 Your team Design an escutcheon –common interests and skills –differences –USP 15 mins Introduce your team members and present your design
19 De-brief How well did your team do? Air time Contribution Resolve difficulties or uncertainties Agree design Feelings
20 EBL and intellectual development 1 How do you spend your holidays? Using post-its, record all the holidays you have had in the past three years (one holiday per post- it) Now add any holidays you would like to have
21 Getting there 2 Now identify different TYPES of holiday (e.g. I had a cheap, sight-seeing holiday in Tasmania) 3 Now cluster your post-its under these categories 4 find opposites, and use to draw up a list of opposing categories 5 take any two opposing methods and use to complete an analysis grid
22 Debrief What did we do?
23 Intellectual skills Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Manipulation Knowledge Ability to make a judgment of the worth of something Ability to combine separate elements into a whole Ability to break a problem into its constituent part and establish the relationships between each one Ability to apply rephrased knowledge in a novel situation That which can be recalled Ability to rephrase knowledge Bloom
26 Activity Devise a set of ground rules for how YOUR team will work effectively during the remainder of this workshop
27 5 Getting down to it You are a group of people who want to start up a holiday business. You need to identify a niche market, develop a business plan and establish a marketing strategy. You want to make a business proposal to a local finance company in 4 weeks time. Determine how your group will go about doing this
28 How did we do? Things to think about –What concept to go for What is the competition? What is the potential market? –What start-up capital will you need? What will be the return on the investment? Time to break-even? –How will you market the business? –What resources and infrastructure will you need? Project plan –Who will do what? –How will you present your proposal? Topics to investigate –The syllabus How to conduct the investigation –The (learning) process
29 Where to begin Select a topic or theme Determine timescale for investigation –Allow for induction, presentation and assessment –Pilot over 3 or 4 weeks in a module –Evaluate it –Expand More topics in a cycle, or Larger investigations
30 The scale of the investigation In-class Between classes (1 week) 2-3 weeks 6-12 weeks or longer Resources provided, small scale investigations, may or may not be linked Initial discussion, students find information from different sources. Need to share outside class. Report back week 2 Middle week(s) for ‘catch up’, consolidate, review and plan Large scale investigation, significantly more autonomy, opportunity for in-depth investigation (deep learning)
31 A case study
32 Computer Science – Support for first-year Enquiry-Based Learning Introduction to EBL and skills for effective group- work Intensive staff consultation and development sessions Small group sizes (6-8 students) EBL facilitator is also personal tutor to group members Students eased into EBL experience gradually through a series of increasingly challenging activities Regular feedback Key lectures to inform and inspire
33 Phase 4: 11 weeks Build application Demos and poster Group report Individual reflection First Year Computer Science A whole-year, ‘phased’ approach Phase 3: 6 weeks World-wide what? Group application Presentations and poster Phase 2: 3 weeks Ethics: killer robot Group presentation Select framework Phase 1: 2 weeks Software patents 2 teams in debate Expectations, skills and group ground rules Phase 0: 2 hours
34 Role of the tutor/facilitator Prepare the students – benefits and expectations, change of role, working in teams Devise the stimulus –Carefully crafted investigations scenarios, triggers, problems Prepare the resources, determine the assessment methods and any deadlines
35 Facilitation…. Acceptance of the ‘shift’ from content expert to facilitator Establishing the environment Taking an active role - keeping the balance Allowing freedom to explore and exchange ideas Ask open-ended questions Encourage reflection and review Offer progress checks – move things forward Challenge the students Guidance on appropriate resources Sensitivity to group dynamics
36 What makes a good facilitator? Characteristics, skills or techniques Think, pair, share
37 Characteristics of an effective facilitator…. Willing to spend time building relationships Negotiates rather than dictates - shares Draws energy from outside themselves as well as within Enthusiasm More like a coach than a scientist Naturally curious about people, things, life in general Flexible Listens Confident Honest Attentive Humorous Checks understanding – closure and consolidation
38 Tutor roleFacilitation typology (style) Facilitation approach continuum Establisher (trigger) Observer Monitor Fixer Member Assessor Social Technical Organisational Motivational hands offhands on reactiveproactive information up frontheld back
39 There are more questions than answers Answering questions Asking questions –When? –Why?
40 Whose line is it anyway? What’s your name? What are we doing here? Do I know you? Do you come here often? Why? Why won’t you answer my question? Will we be assessed on this? Will this work? Is this the right answer? Can I join a different group?
41 Whose line is it anyway? Where can I get more information on facilitating? Why is it important to develop teamworking skills? Do employers really want leadership skills? Can I not just let the rest of my team get on with it? Can you explain what you mean by intellectual skills? Can you not give us something more interesting to do? Will we be assessed on this? Will this work? Is this the right answer? Can I join a different group?
42 Questioning (why do you think that is important?) Guiding (Have you thought of….?) Challenging (How does that work….?) Devil’s advocate (so what if I said….?) Mirroring (well, what do you think it means?) Laddering (ok, so what do you know about…?) Stimulate discussion (what might the pitfalls be? Have you thought about cost/ethics/time…?) Support the process (I thought you agreed that….? Could you re- cap for me?) It is Ok to remain silent at times !
43 When and why? If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it! Why? Do they seem to be pursuing an appropriate line of investigation? Have they overlooked something important? When? Is it irredeemable? –Does it look as if they will not see their ‘mistake’ for themselves –Have they spent so much time on the wrong path that they will not have time to recover?
44 Preparing the students for EBL…. Clarify expectations –theirs and yours Be aware of the ‘peaks and troughs’ in the calendar Provide practice sessions –Practice in a low-risk situation –experienced students as models –Allow time for the groups to ‘gel’ – socialise –Begin to understand group dynamics and rules/roles/skills –Create the environment –encourage students to give and receive feedback Enlist the support of student mentors....
45 Role of the students Accept responsibility for their learning Establish group roles, if any Analyze the stimulus Identify learning goals Determine a plan of activity and agree individual tasks/responsibilities Report individual findings and collate research Complete the task (e.g. present findings) Undertake assessment tasks Give and receive feedback
46 Refine the problem What do we know? Information gap Develop a plan Share tasks Discuss and consolidate Undertake the investigations Share the learning
47 Refine the problem What do we know? Information gap Develop a plan Share tasks Discuss and consolidate Undertake the investigations Share the learning
49 Enquiry Based Learning as a continuous cyclical process
51 What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session? What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session? What was the ‘muddiest’ point in this session? As a result of this session: –What will you stop doing? –What will you start doing? –What will you continue doing? What further activities, support or events do you think this group would benefit from?
52 Creating ‘problems’ What do we want students to do? –Gain understanding, retain knowledge –Make decisions based on their research –Analyse, synthesise and evaluate rather than simply define and explain –Adopt a positive attitude towards their subject/profession –Take more responsibility for their learning –Develop transferable skills
53 The enquiry…. Compatibility with learning objectives of the course Must engage students and motivate them Relationship to the ‘real world’ Encourage students to make decisions or judgements based on information and facts Move students beyond recall of information Should encourage collaboration and co-operation Open-ended, connected to existing knowledge
54 When is a problem not a problem? When it is a Trigger Query Puzzle Enigma Scenarioetc etc……..
55 Possible routes to generating an enquiry…. Design exercises Critical incidents Real case-histories or patient care-plans Present and past controversies Application of important concepts to everyday situations or personal situations Video-clips, novels, newspaper articles, research papers, cartoons Re-write a typical exam question as an open-ended, ‘real-world’ problems Work with colleagues to decide the approach Test the problems on students