Presentation on theme: "6GEO4 Unit 6 Consuming the Rural Landscape-Leisure and Tourism"— Presentation transcript:
16GEO4 Unit 6 Consuming the Rural Landscape-Leisure and Tourism
2What is this option about? Synoptic contextPeoplePlacePowerWho is involved?How?Why?Where?When?Who is responsible?This option focuses on the increasing demands placed on rural areas by the growth of leisure and tourism. You will study the patterns and trends experienced globally of such demands on a range of rural locations: from the edge of urban areas to deep wildernessYou will include an analysis of these consumption pressures on often fragile human and physical landscapes, and how effectively management may address these.
3CONTENTS Growth of leisure & tourism landscapes Significance and fragilityImpactsManagement IssuesClick on the information icon to jump to that section.Click on the home button to return to this contents page
4What is leisure, tourism & recreation? Non -Local recreationLocal recreationBusiness & personal travelLEISURE-non working timeTOURISMBusiness and recreational travel
5The option summarised Leisure /tourism Types :active / passive Enquiry Question 1 GrowthEnquiry Question 2 SignificanceEnquiry Question 3 ImpactsEnquiry Question 4 ManagementLeisure /tourismTypes :active / passiveReasons for changes over timeDifferent groups and players –roles and responsibilitiesConflictsValues and attitudes of different users and beneficiariesLandscape valuesEcological / physical valueFragility and sensitivityWilderness conceptQualitative & quantitative environmental measurescarrying capacityNegative impacts of excessive usePositive impacts of tourism: conservation, increased awareness, protection of heritage sitesChanging impacts over time (increasing or decreasing?)Comparing threats and opportunities in areas with different levels of developmentArguments for / against management of rural landscapes‘conservation spectrum’Players involved in conservation: choices / conflictsEvaluating the effectiveness of different approaches and options
6Enquiry Q 1 Growth of leisure + tourism landscapes This includes the concepts and processes ofRebrandingCommodification and valorization of post productive landscapesHoneypot developmentWilderness continuumRewildingRights of indigenous peopleAuditing rural landscapesDesignating protected areas such as country and National Parks, nature reservesThe rise of leisure tourism and pleasure peripheryRange of rural landscapes affectedAttitudes of players involvedConflicts
7Rural landscapes continuum :More remote rural areas within a country or of interest to tourists from abroad – a widening pleasure periphery‘Pristine’ wilderness?May have low numbers of indigenous people. Often tourism dominated because of remotenessIs any rural landscape really devoid of human influence?Accessible countryside: visits originate mainly from regional area,transport technology enables day visits eg to a National ParkUrban fringe:traditional location for local recreation and leisure. May be of interest to wider tourism if eg large theme parkUrbanised ‘wilderness’Pristine wilderness
8Key concept: the widening and deepening pleasure periphery 1800 source – close to home / local W Europe and E USA1900 Periphery (1) based in NW Europe1930 Periphery (2) extends to W Mediterranean1950 Periphery (3) includes all of the Mediterranean1970 Periphery (4) travel far away and long haul becomes more readily available1990 Periphery (5) tourists are able access the world’s remotest places eg Antarctica21st C consolidation? More extreme activities in existing areas . Backlash to ecotourism. Rise of demand from SE Asia especially China
9Key Players Leisure and Tourism players Examples based on one case studyRole and attitudes to rural landscapesVisitors to / users of area>8m day visitors/yr>42,000 residentsDepending on whether active or passive users.GovernmentsUKLake District NPANatural EnglandMay provide funding / legislation to promote diversification, development etc. Likely to have a social or economic benefitsIGOsUNESCOWorld Heritage SiteStrategic planning, research and advice may sanction aid and investmentNGOs and Pressure groupsFriends of the LD Wildlife TrustsPressurise for environmental stability and against degradation. May purchase areas to protectLocal / regional authoritiesCumbria County Councilpromotion of rural landscapes to diversify economy, e.g. ‘surfing-tourism’ in SW England. Can create hotspots –leading to traffic issues, pollution, congestionCommunitiesLocal groups...If allowed to protest and motivated enough to do so may pressurise governments to increase activities/ decrease usesLocal businessesWatersports...Profit driven, want to encourage usesTNCsN/A hereProfit driven, leakage of profits away from locality
10Ecological & physical value Enquiry Q 2Physical significance and ecological valueFragility of some rural areasDegree of threat, using modelsUse of qualitative and quantitative environmental quality measuresEcological & physical valueLandscape attributes, condition & content including resourcesSocio-cultural valueLandscape contributions to physical & mental health & educationEconomic valueMonetary value –land price
11Fragility, thresholds , capacities and resilience Key models and concepts to this option are:Resilience , basically the ability of an ecosystem and landscape, whether physical or human, to withstand pressure and stay intactCarrying capacity, the ability or capacity of an area to deal with the numbers and demands of visitors who use an area.It is based on the idea that any geographical system has certain limits or thresholds. When exceeded, changes may affect not only the physical components of an environment ( ecosystems, soil and water...) but human environments, especially culture and quality of life.Factors affecting Fragility= vulnerability to disturbanceStability of landscape + ecosystemsType of pressureScale of pressure
12Sustainable ‘use-renewal ‘ and resiliency models Sometimes demands from leisure and tourism exceed the carrying capacity of the systemSustainable management = any location is left in as good a state as it was before visitors, even enhanced.In a sustainable system, successive use will not reoccur until recovery has taken place-Recovery rates vary depending on the ecosystem /landscape involved- more fragile less resilient ones eg tundra and high altitude ones will be slower than temperate chalk grasslands or sand dunes.Model adapted from Trudgill, Flintoff and Cohen 1998useRecoveryState or strength of the systemThreshold of normal functioningThreshold beyond which there is no recovery= collapseTimeWhere rates of use exceed recovery rates, degradation occurs and a threshold is reached beyond which recovery is not possible
13Changing Carrying capacities by positive management CapacityNumber of people/use= will reduce either because site becomes degraded or through restrictive managementTimeNew higher Saturation or carrying capacity zone raised by targeting site and increasing its resilience/decreasing its useCapacity not reachedStress on area, management neededInitial threshold for carrying capacity
14Categories of recreational capacity Environmental: influenced by :resistance,- the ability of an ecosystem or community to absorb use without being disturbedresilience- the speed of recovery, if ever of a system.Physical or design: If demand exceeds supply, then the physical capacity is exceeded. Includes the‘at-one-time’ principle‘throughput capacity’.Economic: if coping with visitor problems is more costly than their revenue.Perceptual: too many people concentrated in one spot at one time may lead to a feeling of over crowding . Some activities are more ‘crowd tolerant’ or ‘crowd sensitive’.
15Measures of significance to audit landscapes QuantitativeQualitativeNumerical data is useful for statistical analysis and for GIS systemsExamples:Species frequency and diversityLand valuesLandscape diversityResource value eg forestry productsSubjective, non-numerical data includes the perceptions of different groups about an area. Inevitably subjective and biased and hence often considered unreliable.Examples: Bipolar and environmental quality indices may be used, together with field sketches and photographsHowever: people choose to visit an area more for their perceptions than empirical knowledge. Increasing use of non-quantitative measures in management
16Impacts: positive and negative Changes in impact over time Enquiry Q 3Impacts: positive and negativeChanges in impact over timeThreats and opportunities in areas of differing economic developmentPositiveWildlife conservationLandscape restorationConservation of rural settlement sitesNegativeErosionHabitat disturbancePollutionLocal settlements disturbance
17Changing impacts over time Numbers of visitorsRejuvenation, possibly through rebranding of areastagnation-4.Antagonism — covert and overt aggression to visitorsconsolidation3.Irritation — concern and annoyance over price rises, crime, rudeness, and cultural rules being brokenDecline of area2.Apathy — increasing indifference with larger numbersDevelopmentinvolvement1. Euphoria — delight in contactExploitationTimeModel of changes in the impacts on rural landscapes by leisure & tourism incorporating Butler’s Life cycle and Doxey’s irritation models
18Commodification of the rural landscape Adding value to the countryside is a key element of new uses of many areas in areas where food production is no longer a priority or where a tourism hot spot developsRebranding may happen spontaneously and gradually as locals adapt to change and offer new attractions to urban populationsRebranding may also be part of specific government policies to reimage and rejuvenate areas suffering population decline and lower qualities of lifeThe media plays a large part in any valorisationRegional/Local eg farmgate sales for specialised processed goods or country parks outside settlementseg Harry Potter + Alnwick in Northumberland , Alton TowersIn UK but global attractionInternational eg Lord of the Rings: Kaitoke regional Park New Zealand
19Visitor influences in rural areas POSITIVE IMPACTS/OPPORTUNITIESEconomicIncome generatorEmploymentMultiplier effectDiversifies economyOpportunity for investment, innovationSupports existing businessesDevelops local crafts/tradesSocialFosters pride of placeCommunity infrastructureCultural exchangeCommunity spiritSafeguards customsEnvironmentKey factor in revitalizing natural, cultural, historical resourcesVillage renewal & cleaner countrysideFosters conservation/ preservation resourcesVisitors may act as ‘ambassadors’ about the value of a placeNEGATIVE IMPACTS/THREATSEconomicDevelopment & marketing costDemands on local public services, especially water and wasteSeasonal and part time employmentlow wagesLeakages of profitsExternal changes an affect visitor numbers rapidly and make economy unstable– eg Foot & Mouth outbreak of 2001, terrorismIncreased cost of living to locals eg by second homesLand use conflicts- damage & trespass costsSocialNew, often conflicting cultures/ideasCrime real or perceivedOver crowding of roads, services, congestionInfringement of privacyUn equitable share in benefitsEnvironmentIncreased visitor numbers may degrade environment- trampling erosion of footpaths, habitat lossIncreased pollution: air, noise, litterIntrusive new developments- loss of greenfieldWildlife and domestic stock disturbed
20Should rural landscapes be managed? Enquiry Q 4 ManagementWho is the management for:locals?visitors?Landowners?The flora and fauna and landscapes of the natural environment?What rights should locals have?To what extent should degraded or damaged landscapes be restored to original state?If restoration is involved is there legislation to restore indigenous species? Why?Is micro-management the best strategy or a wider perspective?Is management short or long term?Is management reactive or pro-active?Are there any conflicts between different managers of any site?Should rural landscapes be managed?Attitudes and conflicts of different managersEffectiveness of management strategies
21Carrying capacity management Carrying Capacity exceeded in an areaReduce CapacityReduce attractions Discourage access eg smaller carpark….. Reduce on site provision eg charging….Alternative SitesPromote new sites eg by signing, publicity, traffic management, provide new facilities eg trails……..Raise CapacityModify distribution of people -Concentrate or Disperse eg by car parks, paths, barriers, Interpretation boards, new trails……Manage ecosystems eg resistant flora, drainage, turfing……Improve access by new paths, surfacing, drainage..
22Classifying Management actions DirectOften used in most fragile areas or in a potentially dangerous situation eg waterfall, crumbling ruin.Most time consuming and expensiveMay need to start with this in short term to protect, and then move to more indirect means as education kicks inregulations that may entail enforcement,restricting activities or rationing useIndirectusually more successful in remoter locationscheaperseeks to affect behaviour through education, information and persuasion.Visitors can be informed about the impacts connected with a certain activity, or given information that encourages the use of certain areas over threatened areas.physical alterations, such as the redirection of a trail to a more resilient area of a forest, that influence the movement of visitors.HardPaths, fences, vegetation clearance, reseeding…..SoftLand use zoning, litter bins, interpretation signs & centres, nature trails……
23Setting limits of useIn the 1960s and 1970s managers tried to determine an optimum number for sites from Yosemite to StonehengeHowever, it is almost impossible to set a valueIndeed, creating a specific carrying capacity figure may give false impression of security once established.Latest research focuses on the concept that all activities cause impacts and these should be limited rather than the pure numbers of people.This is called the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) . It is used to set standards and monitoring indicators based on management and stakeholder concerns.When these standards are not met then managers start mitigation to return to an acceptable impact.By the 1980s in the USA a form of LAC was used by about a quarter of all national parks by the 1980s called The Visitor Experience and Resource Protection Process (VERP). This is largely based on physical capacity.The concept is now used globally by many managers.Yosemite by D. Milton
24The concept of ‘loved to death’! Tourism and recreation is a powerful tool for both local and national economic development especially for rural areas with limited opportunities .This is not just in more developed economies in a post productive phase and with a declining workforce in agriculture, but also in developing economies : Peru, Vietnam.One of the biggest markets in the future is China, with a vast internal market and now post Olympics an even bigger growth hot spot for foreign travellers.This is the fundamental paradox of modern tourism: sites often have to be protected and promoted at the same time: hence the term ‘loved to death’!The carrying capacity is often exceeded, hence’ death’ to aspects of an area: from ecosystem species to indigenous peoples.(top image is of locals near Machu Picchu selling artefacts)National parks from Yellowstone, the Lake District to Machu Picchu in Peru are classic examples.
25Assessing management strategies Criteria need to be set up to assess the effectiveness of the range of management strategies possible:The sustainability quadrant or 3 pillars of sustainability models may help as a framework.Total protection-may be preservation No public access. May have scientific researchWildlife parks & reservesMay include ecotourismEconomic viability and futurityEcosystem healthCommunity involvementSocial equityExtractive reservesEconomic development integrated into conservationExploitation may have token protection